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Final Exam Notes – NUTR 2050

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University of Guelph
NUTR 2050
Jess Haines

Final Exam NotesNUTR 2050InfancyBreastfeeding RecommendationsRecommend exclusive breastfeeding for first six monthsSupplemental vitamin D is recommended for breastfed infants 400 IUFirst complementary foods should be ironrichoMeat meat alternatives and ironfortified cerealInfancyFirst year of lifeFrom birth to 12 months of ageEnergy NeedsEnergy calorieso108kCalkgday from birth to 6 monthso98kCalkgday from 612 monthsAbsolute calorie needs are higher from 612 months but relative amounts are lowerFactors that Influence Caloric NeedsWeightGrowth rateSleepwake cycleTemperature and climatePhysical activityMetabolic response to foodHealth statusGrowth SpurtsTypically three weeks and three monthsDo not signal a need for solid foods or formula if breastfeedingFeed on demand as much as requiredMacronutrientsProtein needso22kgkgday from birth to 6 monthso16gkgday from 6 to 12 monthsFat needsoAI about 30gdayno change from birth6 months and 612 months restriction not recommendedoInfants need cholesterol for brain developmentoBreast milk contains about 55 calories from fatoBreast milk contains shortchain and mediumchain fatty acids in addition to the longchainShort and mediumchain fatty acids are easier to digest and utilizeCarbohydrate needso65 gday from birth to 6 monthso90gday from 612 monthsMetabolic Rate Calories Fats and ProteinsMetabolic rate of infants is highest of any time after birthoThe higher rate is related to rapid growth and high proportion of muscleoLow CHO andor energy intake results in protein catabolism impacting growthKey Vitamins and MineralsFluoride o01mgday birth to 6 monthso05mgday 612 monthsoSupplement at 6 months unless provided with fluoridated wateroFluoride is incorporated into enamel of forming teethVitamin DoBreastfed babies need supplement of 400IUday from birth until 1 yearIrono027mgday birth to 6 monthso11mgday 612 monthsoAnemia uncommon in infants because of prenatal iron stores of the mother high bioavailability in breast milkoMore common in lowincome familiesoIronfortified cereals recommended at 46 monthsCows Milk During InfancyWhole reduced fat or skim cows milk should not be used before 9 monthsIrondeficiency anemia linked to early introduction of cows milkAnemia linked tooGastrointestinal blood lossoDisplacement of ironrich foodsSoy ProteinBased Formula During InfancySoy protein in place of milk protein should be limited in its useThere is little scientific evidence for benefit of increase soy over milkbasedUse of soy formula is not recommendedoFor managing infant colicoAs an advantage over cows milk formula for preventing allergy in healthy atrisk infantsInfant DevelopmentLike building blocksPredictable sequenceIntrinsic influenceoChilds health nutrition brain function temperamentExtrinsic influenceoFamily environment cultural normsFive Domains of Development1Motor aVoluntary muscle movement gross and fine influenced by sensory system2SensoryaInformation from environment3Cognitivemental4Language and communication5Social adaptive emotionalNewbornsHear and move in response to familiar soundsCNS is immaturesubtle cues for hunger and satiety versus later cuesStrong reflexes especially suckle and rootReflexes replaced by purposeful movementReflexoAutomatic response triggered by specific stimulusRooting reflexoInfant turns head toward the cheek that is touchedSuckleoReflex causing tongue to move forward and backwardMotor DevelopmentAbility to control voluntary musclesMotor development is top downcontrols head first and lower legs lastoMuscle development from central to peripheralInfluences ability to be fed feed self and the amount of energy expendedStarts with head and trunk control then lower legsDevelopment of Infant Feeding SkillsInfants born with reflexes and food intake regulatory mechanismInherent preference for sweet tasteAt 46 months reflexes fadeinfant begins to purposely signal wants and needsAt 46 months infants move tongue from side to side indicating readiness for solid foodsAt 912 months infants develop motor skills allowing them to feed themselvesBreast is best but if you bottle feedCuddle when feedingLook into each others faceSupport head higher than rest of bodyTouch nipple of bottle to lips or show to get responseHold bottle still do not tipLet infant control paceOnly burp if seems full of airthey will stop eating and may seem uncomfortableTalk to them while they are eating sing etc but be calm and quietKnowing when done with eatingSignalsoSlowing down on suckingoTurning away from bottleoClosing lipsoSpitting out bottleoTaking interest in other thingsEllyn Satter and Younger InfantsDivision of responsibility
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