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Final

NUTR2050 Final: NUTR2050FinalExamReview.pdf


Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 2050
Professor
Simone Holligan
Study Guide
Final

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1.NUTR2050FinalExamReview 
80MultipleChoice
Ifanyonehasnotesforthechapter6,8,10,12,14,and15readingstheywouldbegreatly
appreciated!!!
LifeStage:Adulthood(2064)
Unit3
Physiologicaland
CognitiveDevelopment
● EarlyAdulthood(2030)
○ Somecontinuedbonedensitydevelopment
○ Muscularstrengthpeaks
● Midlife(4050)
○ Declineinleanmass;increaseinfatmass
○ Decreasedexterityandflexibility
● OlderAge(6065)
○ Hormonalchanges
HormonalChanges
 declineinestrogenproductionleadtomenopause(endof
menstruation)
 menopauseisassociatedwithacceleratedlossofbone
mass,increasedriskofcardiovasculardiseaseand
increaseinabdominalfat
 Menexperiencegradualdeclineintestosteronelevelsand
musclemass 
NutrientNeeds
→Nutrientsofconcernlistedinthetextincludefat,fibre,
vitaminE,calcium,magnesium;folicacidandironforwomen
→150mins/weekphysicalactivity(moderatelyintense)
→energyneedsarebasedonanindividualsBMR(basal
metabolicrate),thermiceffectoffood,activitythermogenesis
 6075%ofdailyenergyexpenditureisbyinvoluntary
processbyinternalchemicalactivitiesbybrain,liver,
heartetc.
 10%oftotalenergyisusedforthermiceffectoffood
(energyrequiredfordigestionabsorptionandmetabolism
offood) 
 2040%ofenergyexpenditureisduetoactivity
thermogenesis(energyenxpendedbyexerciseand
nonexerciseactivities)=Mostvariablecomponent

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DiseasesandHealth
Concerns
→sixintenCanadians(about62%)wereoverweightorobese
→Anappleshapeisassociatedwithanincreasedriskofheart
disease,highbloodpressure,type2diabetes,andstroke
→apearshapedbodytypeactuallyhavealowerriskofthese
conditionsbecausetheexcessfatislocatedfurtherfromthe
heart
→Smoking,notenoughphysicalactivity,highbloodpressure,
heartdisease
→Theleadingcauseofdeathamongadults:Cardiovascular
diseaseandcancer
→ObesogenicEnvironmentmoreenergyconsumed,less
energyout
 Faddietspopularweightlossapproaches,many,but
notallareunhealthy
 obesityhavinganexcessaccumulationofadiposetissue
 causesinsulinresistance
 obesityisassociatedwithhighlevelsofestrogen
 increasesriskofhypertension,stroke,type2diabetes,
gallbladderdisease,heartdisease,respiratoryproblems,
osteoarthritis(increasesriskofmostcardiovascular
diseases)
 overweight(BMI=2529.9)
 obese(BMI=30orgreater)
 obesityclassifiedasI,II,IIIusingBMI
 Extremeobesity(BMImorethan40)“Morbidobesity”
extremelyhighriskofcardiovasculardisease
 Bariatricsurgeryweightlosssurgeryforextremeobesity
 Safeweightloss½to1lbperweekeven2lbis
acceptable
Howcandietbeusedto
treat/lessendiseaseeffects
 wellchosenvegetariandietdecreasesriskofmortality
andmorbidity,whichdecreasesriskofvariouscancers
 BeverageIntake10to14%oftotalenergyshouldcome
frombeverages
 totalcaffeineintakeislimitedto400mg/day

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 Alcoholintakenomorethan2drinksformen/dayand
nomorethan1drinkforwomen/day(moderateintakes
aregoodforheart)
 Fat(2035%oftotalcalories)
 Protein(1035%oftotalcalories)
 Carbohydrates(4565%oftotalcalories)
Calculations
BMI:1kg=2.2lbs
1inch=2.54cm 
=weight(kg)/m2
 BMIdoesnotadequatelyrepresentrelationshipbetween
diseaseriskfor:growingyoungadult,individualswith
large/densebone,muscular/leanindividuals,dehydrated
individuals,someethnicgroupsandolderadults(over
65)
!!!!!REENOTONEXAM!!!!!!!!!!whatisREE?
LifeStage:Preconception
Unit4
PhysiologicalandCognitive
Development
Infertility:involuntaryabsenceofproductionofchildren
Infecundity:biologicalinabilitytobearchildrenafterone
yearofunprotectedintercourse
Fertility:actualproductionofchildrenabilitytobear
children
Fecundity:biologicalabilitytobearchildren
Miscarriage:generallydefinedasthelossofafetusinthe
first20weeksofpregnancyalsocalledspontaneousabortion
Endocrine:asystemofductlessglands,suchasthethyroid,
adrenalglands,ovaries,andtestes,thatproducesecretionthat
affectbodyfunctions
Subfertility:reducedleveloffertilitycharacterizedby
unusuallylongtimetoconception(over12months)or
repeatedearlypregnancylosses
Puberty:theperiodinlifeduringwhichhumansbecome
biologicallycapableofreproduction
Ova:eggsofthefemaleproducedandstoredwithinthe
ovaries
Menopause:cessationofthemenstrualcycleandreproductive
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