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[NUTR 3210] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (25 pages long!)

25 pages149 viewsFall 2016

Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 3210
Professor
Kelly Meckling
Study Guide
Midterm

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UofG
NUTR 3210
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 2, September 13.
Organic: Carbs, lipids, proteins, vitamins
Inorganics: Minerals
What is an essential nutrient?
A chemical that is required for optimum metabolism, but that cannot be
synthesized or cannot be synthesized rapidly enough, to meet the needs or an
animal or human for one or more physiological function
Purified diets experiment: Two groups fed the same purified diet, the experimental
groups diet is lacking in a specific nutrient though
Results:
- Deficiency disease, add the nutrient back and you’ll fix the disease
A deficiency does not need to be lethal to define the nutrients essentiality.
Ex. Iron/folate/vitamin B2 deficiency can cause anemia. Not lethal, but not
ideal.
Essential Nutrients:
Carbohydrates (0) Our body can make glucose if we need it
Fats (2) linoleic and alpha linoleic acid (omega 6 and 3)
Protein/amino acids (9-10) Val, Iso, Leu, Phe Thr, Try, Met, Lys, His, Arg
Vitamins (12) A, D, K, E, C, B Vitamins
Minerals (14) Ca, Na, K, Cl, Mg, P, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, I, F, Mn, Mo
Conditionally essential (for example if you’re pregnant)
 Approximately 40 nutrients are essential
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI’s)
-Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): reflects the median requirements
used in planning and assessing (satisfies 50% of the population, the mean)
-Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): derived form the ear and meets
and exceeds the requirement for 97.5% of the population. Caluculated as
EAR+2 standard deviations.
-Adequate intake (AI): Used when the ear, rda cannot be developed due to
insufficient evidence, reflects the average intake level based on
observed/experimental data
- Acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR): the intake range for an
energy source associated with reduced risk of chronic disease
- Therapeutic index (TI): the value obtained from UL/RDA useful to describe
the proportionate safety range
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Health Canada provides DRI’s for moth macros and micros
Values including EAR, RDA, AI and UL are provided for most nutrients
Energy requirements are very dependent on the individual, therefore no
DRI’s for energy
Estimating Nutrient Requirements
 Nutrient requirements are considered as frequency distributers of nutrient
intake needed by individuals within a population to achieve similar endpoints.
Upper limit: tolerable upper limit; above this limit, the individual runs the risk of
toxicity
Therapeutic limit: gap between safe and harmful. Between RDA and UL
Estimation of Risk
The goal is to keep people within the RDA and under the UL (=TI)
Risk of inadequacy: not having enough (deficit)
Risk of adverse effects: excess, anything past the upper limit
Nutrient Composition of the Body
- 55-65% water
- 20-25% lipids
- 15% proteins
- 0.5% carbohydrates
- 2% vitamins and minerals
The importance of Water
 Water intake 2-2.5kg/day
 Water functions:
-Solvent
-Lubricant
- Temperature regulation – sweat
- Catabolism (hydrolysis)
Research Methods in Nutrition
1. In vitro models
- Pro: good for getting info on molecular mechanisms
- Cons: isolated, not the whole organism
2. Animal Models
- Pros: Strictly controlled, invasive, cheaper
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