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Micronutrients 4

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University of Guelph
NUTR 3210
Genevieve Newton

Summary Micronutrients 4 Iron (Fe) • Moderately distributed in food, but very poor absorption • 3 kinds of iron in food: (1) Ferrous (Fe2+) – inorganic, 5% absorption (2) Ferric (Fe3+) – inorganic, 0% absorption (3) Heme – organic, 15-20% absorption • Several roles in the body, including in the ETC (redox) and oxygen carrying (myo & hemoglobin), also other enzymes • Really common to be deficient, esp. in developing countries and if premenopausal female (blood loss in menstruation) • Absorption: each of the 3 forms ultimately ends up as Fe2+ in the intestinal mucosa, since this is the form found in solution. Iron absorption regulated at the level of the intestine, with high levels of transferrin saturation (35-40%) causing an absorptive block. • Transport: transported as Fe3+, which is formed via ceruloplasmin and then bound to transferrin (transport protein) • Storage: 2 storage forms – (1) Ferritin-Fe3+ (can be transported outside of cells) (2) hemosiderin-Fe3+ (trapped inside cells) • RBC’s made in the bone marrow using hemoglobin formed from iron are degraded by reticuloendothelial cells (spleen) and iron recycled • Overload: excess hemosiderin-Fe3+ = hemosiderosis, also storag
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