01 – Cell Injury
Course coordinator – Rob Foster ([email protected]
www.uoguelph.ca/~pod ▯ add POD to the subject line
userid: path ; password: 3610
You will be able to interpret medically related articles in the popular press, and medically related discussions in an objective
material: and scientific manner. The vocabulary of medicine is acquired in the process.
9th Edition. V.
Kumar, A Abbas, J
Written questions are of a similar format to the examples provided on the POD website. General principles of pathogenesis,
At the end of this course you will be able to
1. Define medical terms used in general pathology and in diseases of body systems
2. Outline the principles of prevention and therapy of any disease at a basic level
3. Describe the response and outcome of injury in the major organs of the body, particularly the skin, stomach and
intestines, bone marrow and blood, lungs, liver, kidneys, genital organs, heart and vessels, brain and spinal cord, and bones and
joints using a knowledge of anatomy and physiology at a basic level.
4. List the clinical signs seen when each organ fails and explain why each clinical sign occurs based on the specific
function of the organ.
5. Explain the general approach to treatment of a disease, and when given basic information about a disease, provide
general, specific and appropriate examples of treatments.
therapy and prevention are evaluated. It is therefore important to provide general outlines or information, and to supplement this
with specific information where available. Mechanisms and pathogenesis of disease are emphasized in the course, so these will
be assessed. Understanding medical terminology, anatomy and physiology is an integral part of this course. DISEASE
Two components: dis + ease
An imbalance of homeostasis is recognized as the clinical signs and symptoms of disease. Signs are the observations
of disease and symptoms are what you feel.
Pathology = ‘pathos’ meaning suffering ‘ology’ is the study of = study of suffering.
Pathology brings together the cause (etiology) of a disease process, its mechanisms of development (pathogenesis), the
structural alterations (lesions) and the functional consequences (clinical significance).
Incidence = number of new cases of a disease each year.
Prevalence = number of occurrences of the disease in a year and is the total number affected.
Morbidity = the percentage of a given population that will become affected.
Case fatality rate = is the proportion of individuals who contract a disease that die of that disease in a set period of time,
usually one year.
Mortality rate = is the ratio of the number of deaths from a given disease to the total population.
Koch postulates = the basis for determining the cause of disease.
The suspected organism must always be present in the lesions;
It must be grown in a pure culture on laboratory media.
It must cause the same disease when injected into a susceptible animal;
It must be recovered from the experimental animal.
However, many diseases today do not entirely fulfill Koch postulates. Many of our diseases involve infectious and non
infectious causes, and we have developed a wide an large number of associations with diseases.
Disease is a prelude to failure. Organ failure occurs only after considerable disease.
The type and effectiveness of healing and repair is dependent on the inherent abilities of the cells involved (permanent
vs stable vs labile types). Cells regenerate when they can. Granulation and scarring occurs when organs cannot
There is rarely a single cause of disease
CELL INJURY AND ADAPTATION / CELL DEATH
If the demand (or an insult) exceeds the ability of the cell to adapt, injury occurs. We recognize 3 responses to demand –
adaptation, reversible injury, ad irreversible injury and cell death. The worst insult for a cell results in death. An *ulcer, pus and a burn are examples of cell death.
*these are lesions to show there is a disease.
Cells die ad shrink, stay the same or swell.
There is a wide range of potential causes of cell injury (oxygen deprivation,