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Midterm

Mid Term Review Phil 1050

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHIL 1050
Professor
Heidi Bailey
Semester
Fall

Description
Important Sub Themes Through Issues... Impact of Political Ideology, Political culture. Branches of Government Accountability and Efficiency Canadian Federalism Rights and Freedom Divisive Forces - regionalism, Americanism, Globalism Terminology Politics - “Who gets what, when, and how” - Harold Laswell Government - set of institutions that make and enforce collective, public decisions - also the current group in power Ideology - body of ideas used in support of an economic, political or social theory Public Administration - the way in which governments conduct themselves through bureaucratic processes; a discipline and a practice Bureaucracy - a form of organization Politicians - elected officials Bureaucrats - appointed officials Political Spectrum Democracy - rule by the people Direct Democracy - in which people have a direct say in matters of the state Representative Democracy - in which people appoint representatives to speak for them in matters of the state Deliberate vs. Plebiscitary Democracy Economic Spectrum Capitalism - economic system based on the private ownership and the free market Mixed Economy - mixture of private and state control Socialism - means of production and distribution controlled by government Communism - all property owned by all in a classless society Ideological Right - members of a group who hold more conservative views than other Centrist - holding or advocating of moderate political views Left - members of an organization most favoring change - liberal Elements of Democracy There is a Demos There is a territory where decisions apply There is a decision making procedure Procedure is regarded as legitimate by the demos Freedom – Constrained vs Infinite Freedom LIBERALISM IN CANADA - Liberalism is held to stand for a political view that verges towards the universal and abstract (embraces changes in society). - Welfare state but taxes are high. - primary objective of economic activity is to improve human welfare ( top- bottom approach) - Dominant ideology of Canada - Group rights – collective interest. CONSERVATISM - characterized by a belief in individualism and minimum of government intervention in the economy and society as well as tradition, elitism and opposition to change - Individual freedom is more important than social equality. - Government should be small and level of taxation low. - Federal government – avenue of last resort for assistance ( bottom – up approach) - Preventative Arrest- can arrest you if you seem suspicious Socialism - Socialism seeks to liberate the individual from the inequalities and exploitation of the capitalist system. - It believes in a large element of state action in order to achieve equality. - Equal Distribution of Wealth - For e.g. NDP Political Ideologies – The 2 Cows Analogy LIBERALISM - You have two cows. You sell both to the rich. The government then taxes the rich man’s cows and gives it to poor. CONSERVATISM – You have two cows. Your neighbor has none, but that’s ok ( you may choose to share some with him). COMMUNISM: You have two cows. The government takes both of them and gives you part of the milk. SOCIALISM: You have two cows. The government takes one of them and gives it to your neighbor DEMOCRACY: You have two cows. Your neighbors decide who gets the milk. Ideological History in Canada - Minimalist - 1860 to 1930 – Conservative ideology - Keynesian - 1930 to 1980s – Liberal ideological era - Neo-Conservative - 1980 to Present – social conservative fiscal policies with libertarian roots. Privatization, Deregulation, Decentralization Political Culture - Political Culture - the broad pattern of beliefs, values and attitudes citizens hold towards politics and the political system - What makes us “Canadians”? - 3 main interpretations Louis Hartz – Fragmented society "Tolerance" we can be traced back to different countries, we have come together to create a fragment society • tolerant view point of each others political views • Tory Touch- we have to give the power to the elite class, to rule over us Martin Lipset – Continental Divide-formative events- political culture in any countries were shaped by events that occurred, ex. war of independence (U.S) this shapes the political views in the U.S Harold Innis – staples theory- the best way to describe Canada's culture is through their resources, regionalism, are the most important in defining Canadians culture Types of political culture • Attitudes towards yourself and a belief that government is responsive to the people – political efficacy • Attitudes towards political community – political trust • Attitudes towards other people – interpersonal trust Employment Equity - Aboriginals -Visible Minorities -women -people with disabilities Political Culture -Canadian Political Culture: conservative; deference to authority; acceptance of government intervention; tolerant of political and social differences; collective -Important to note regional differences Case Study - Same Sex Marriage -What it is and isn’t- a lawful union between two persons, excluding all others -Common Law versus Marriage- under the same room for 12 months (Common law) all rules of marriage apply -Church and State- same sex couples and non same sex couples can be married through church or through ceremony -Federal vs. Provincial legislations- provinces -solemnization (signing of marriage certificate) Federal- changes the definition of who can marry or what a marriage is -Solemnization of wedding - banns -Political culture, ideology and its affect on Same Sex Marriage Political Culture and Same Sex Marriage -Brief History -Klippert Case - 1960s -Trudeau Amendments - 1969 -Quebec 1977 - Human Rights Code -Immigration Change 1978 -1982 Canada Constitution Act - S. 15 Political Culture and Same Sex Marriage -Brief History - Continued -1988 - Sven Robinson comes out -1991 - Delwin Vriend fired for being gay -1992 - Ban on Gays in Military lifted -1996 - Bill C33 adds sexual orientation -1999 - Liberal vote of traditional definition of marriage Same Sex Marriage – Policy making vs political culture Jan. 2004 - Supreme Court Reference Questions June 2004 - First Same Sex Divorce Dec. 2004 - Supreme Court Ruling June 28, 2005 - Bill C-38 Passes 2006 - Harper indicated he will re-open issue Federal responsibility: Change the definition of marriage Provinces: changes law to being legal QUESTIONS TO SUPREME COURT OF CANADA Was the definition of marriage within the exclusive legislative authority of the federal government? YES Was the inclusion of same sex couples within the rights of the Charter? YES Did the freedom of religion guarantee and protect religious officials from being compelled to preform marriage between same sex couples even if it was contradictory to their religious beliefs? YES Is traditional definition of marriage ( i.e. between one man and one woman) consistent with the charter? DID NOT ANSWER Notwithstandingclause: use to say we do not want to participate in a certain right or legislation Thoughts….. -What does our political culture say about certain socio-political issues, such as same sex marriage and freedom of religion? -Do you consider Canada to be a stable nation? Yes or no and why? -Do you feel superior to other citizens of the world, such as Americans? If so, why? If inferior, why? -The Royal Proclamation 1763: Placed the aboriginals under british law (claimed sovereignty over first nations) -The Quebec Act 1774 British realized it was important to preserve French culture allowed french language and culture to be protected -Constitution Act 1791 Lower vs Upper Canada • created "loyalists"-people who immigrated to Canada from America who wanted to be part of the British crown (really fought for an elective government) • This created lower and upper Canada- french is lower and upper is English-Upper canada is what we know today as western alienation • The loyalists also decided to separate the politics • Liberals became the tori/reformists who were anyone who apposed the Crown • War of independence was going on in U.S, a lot of Americans felt like they needed to come to Canada, hey preferred representative government -Durham Report "Responsible Government"-creation of the parliamentary system, indicates the executive (elite- i.e primeminister) maintain confidence of the people • Came to assess problem with upper and lower Canada • the division • wanted to join upper and lower Canada- United province of Canada • The act of the Union -BNA Act 1867-Western alienation -Ontario centric -a lot of the development was in Ontario it solidified the relationship between provinces and the federal government -Statute of Westminister 1931 -broke us away from British ruling, own independent nations, make own rules -Role of the governor general Riel’s Rebellions - Regionalism is attachment to geographical location -it is very strong in Canada *Louis Riel and the Métis National Committee form provisional government of Manitoba. -Aboriginals are defined as- Metis and Inuits, first nations *Later led a rebellion in Saskatchewan ( North-West Rebellion) *Executed 1885 in Regina -Mcdonalds western policy- Increase domestic production -To stop foreign imports from coming in -today, Harpers doing the same thing -Harper is increasing Tariffs for incoming goods The national Policy Consequences: • Not a national policy, but an imperial policy • Resource extraction from the west subsidized the „east‟ (Windsor – Quebec • Railways ran only East-West, not North-South • CPR fees effectively amounted to subsidization of central Canadian industry • Upshot: an imperialist rather than a national policy POPULISM belief in the ability of ordinary people to act together politically” Two strains: Radical populism-take away peoples individual rights Social Conservatism-based on traditional law, morality, resistance to change -laws made by people not the elite Common theme: Power is held by an (economic or political) elite: in this case the central government, the elite is always corrupt because ether are dry must focussed on central Canada not helping anyone else. • why is the central government going so much attention to Ontario and Quebec? Elite is decadent and corrupt • People vs the political elite • Definition of Populism: a belief in the ability of ordinary people to act together politically 1980's-political party that represented the western people (the reform party) • made of rate people by the people • merged with the Canadian Alliance party Early Settlement and Brief History • • The Royal Proclamation 1763 • • British claimed sovereignty and not control or ownership of First Nations • • The Quebec Act 1774- British relised that the French culture was really important to preserve and created the Quebec act to give French control over language and religion and protected French rights in Quebec • • Constitution Act 1791- Loyalists (people who preferred the British crown and fled from the States to Canda) • o Lower (Quebec) vs Upper (Ontario) Canada • o Upper Canada is the start of regionalism • o Loyalist became the Tories (conservatives), those who protests the Loyalists became reformers (became liberals) • o There was a lot of tension between the English speaking and the French speaking, which was cultural, not political • • Durham Report (Act of the Union) • o Joined upper and lower Canada • o United Province of Canada • o Responsible Government- with the joining of the upper and lower Canada created a Paralement and the upper class (Priminister, MPs) • • BNA Act 1867- Western alienation (Ontario Centric) • o Solidified the relationship between provinces and the federal government • • Statute of Westminister 1931 • o Got our own constitution and really became our own country • o Able to make own laws • o Role of the governor general is the representative of the queen, however now there was a lot of talk of abolishing the governor general (2005, but would we still be Canada if we cut our ties with Britain? Regionalism (strong attachment to a geological location) - Western Alienation • • Louis Riel and the Métis National Committee from provisional of Manitoba • • Later led a rebellion in Saskatchewan (North-West Rebellion) • • Executed 1885 in Regina for treason The national policy Consequences: • • Not a national policy, but an imperial policy • • Resource extraction from the west subsidized the ‘east’ (Windsor- Quebec) • • Railways ran only East-West, not North- South because the purpose was to bring resources from the west to Ontario • • CPR fees effectively amounted to subsidization of central Canadian industry • • Upshot: the criticism was that it created an imperialist rather than a national policy The Western Political Reponses? Populism- People/ Elite • • “A belief in the ability to ordinary people to act together politically” • • Two Strains • o Radical populism – a way to try to devalue democracy by taking away individual rights • o Social Conservatism- based on traditional law, morality, resistance to change, decisions should be made by people and not the elite • • Common theme: • o Power is held by an (economic or political) elite • o Elite is descendant and corruption because they are really focused on central Canada (Ontario and Quebec) and not so much other provinces Populism- The Reform Party Based on Preston Manning’s principles of social conservatism • • Freedom of individual important than collective freedom e.g. no preferential treatment for natives, minorities, etc. • • Capitalism even more important, which did not make sense for provinces in the west who were coming the central Canada for jobs • • Western conservatives reject pandering to Quebec by PC government led by Mulroney • • The Reform party was (initially) opposed to: • o Group rights • o Multiculturalism • o Corporate Welfare • o Corrupt Politicians • • Reform was in favour of: • o Direct democracy mechanisms – everything done provincially, free votes • o Tight constituency association control of MPs because it would decrease the change of scandals • o Decentralization- before all power/ decision making belonged to the federal government, had control of funding and things like that. They wanted it to be shared with the provincial government. Federalism • • Federalism- a system of government characterized by two levels of government and a division of powers E.g. Canada (said to be the best example, above even the states) • • Unitary One extreme of federalism (left) – was the central and only the central has power of jurisdiction, resources, everything. E.g. The United Kingdon • • Confederations The other extreme of federalism (right)- Lower levels of government share most power E.g. Switzerland • • Why Federalism works: • o Large geographic area- we are such a diverse country and the federal government is so far away that the provinces need power as well • o Heterogeneous population; • o Distrust of government • o Big government agenda • • 3 Components related to Federalism: • o Division of Powers • o Division of Financial Powers • o Federal Control Over Powers • • Federal Powers (Section 91): Trade and commerce, general taxation, defense, banking, Indians, criminal law, interprovincial transport and communication • • “Peace Order and Good Government” (POGG) – a doctrine that favors central government Used: • • If a law is made that has not yet been given to provinces • • During crisis/ Emergencies E.g. During the depression the provinces could not substance health, and it had to become a federal responsibility • • During prohibitions because it was federally illegal, usually the selling and disruption belongs to the province • • Provincial Powers (Section 92): direct taxation; public lands; hospitals; municipalities; education; property and civil rights • • “Local and Private Nature” Division of Financial Powers • • Tax Agreement • • Conditional - must be used for what it is given for and must the use must reported (province must request this) • • Block Grants- promised on a yearly basis that is transferred from the government to the province that is promised to a certain program at a certain time • • Equalization Payments- the money that is holding the provinces up right now because of the amount of money that is being transfer. The federal government must use a specific formula to determine which provinces get how much. A portion of all taxes from everyone across the country is put into a pool and given to the provinces that need it the most. It is not a “Robin- hood” program. Equalization Payments Formula a. 1) Each province gets a salary/ every year the produce x amount of money b. 2) Add up the money that each province makes c. 3) Divide the total by the number of provinces, the number is the minimum that each province should spend on social programs d. 4) The provinces making less than what they should be spending is given a “top-up”, or a equalization payments Key Powers for Federal Government • • Reservation: gives the government more power • • Disallowance : disallow any legislation from passing through • • Declatory Powers • • Judicial Review: The power of the court to determine if the actions of either branch of the government was constitutional or not • • JCPC-Challenges federal suprmacy • • -e.g local prohibition 1896 Riel’s Rebellions - Regionalism is attachment to geographical location -it is very strong in Canada *Louis Riel and the Métis National Committee form provisional government of Manitoba. -Aboriginals are defined as- Metis and Inuits, first nations *Later led a rebellion in Saskatchewan ( North-West Rebellion) *Executed 1885 in Regina -Mcdonalds western policy- Increase domestic production -To stop foreign imports from coming in -today, Harpers doing the same thing -Harper is increasing Tariffs for incoming goods The national Policy Consequences: • Not a national policy, but an imperial policy • Resource extraction from the west subsidized the „east‟ (Windsor – Quebec • Railways ran only East-West, not North-South • CPR fees effectively amounted to subsidization of central Canadian industry • Upshot: an imperialist rather than a national policy POPULISM belief in the ability of ordinary people to act together politically” Two strains: Radical populism-take away peoples individual rights Social Conservatism-based on traditional law, morality, resistance to change -laws made by people not the elite Common theme: Power is held by an (economic or political) elite: in this case the central government, the elite is always corrupt because ether are dry must focussed on central Canada not helping anyone else. • why is the central government going so much attention to Ontario and Quebec? Elite is decadent and corrupt • People vs the political elite • Definition of Populism: a belief in th
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