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Social Deviance Exam.docx

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Philosophy
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PHIL 2120
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TheoryTheory and practice are intertwined A theory is an explanation of a phenomenonIn sociology there can be multiple existing theories that explain one phenomenon Positivist TheoriesInterested in why people act in certain ways Seek cause and effect relationshipsinterested in planning a better society and seeking better social control Functionalist theoriesIdea that society is comprised of structures that all have a function within societyand if something no longer serves its function it is eliminated by society Maintenance of the social order is consensual in that the rules exist because we believe they should existManifest functionIntended and recognized such as training for young adults for employment is amanifest function of university Latent Function Unintentional and unrecognized such as social networking in university TeleologicalThe reason something exists within society is based on the function it serves We thuscannot know if something in society exists without a function because it is not tested becausesomething only exists because we know what its function is TautologicalThe whole is described in terms of its parts eg families socialize children so thesocialization of children is a main function of the family Androcentric BiasBarely recognizes the roles of women in society and sociology and if it does itfocuses on traditional roles DurkheimFounder of sociology and believed that a degree of deviance was functional withinSociety however it may become pathological and create anomie normlessnessDeviance increases social solidarity because we see deviance realize the important of the rules and band together Also we determine what societys moral boundaries are by experiencing deviance and understanding what is right and wrong Certain norms may be dysfunctional for society and thus will be eliminated or changed At a certain point deviance no longer enhances the social order but interferes with it Mechanical SolidarityBefore industrialization society was bonded together by likeness and acollective commitment to conformityOften a kinbased society know everyone in the community and have minimal specialization in the division of labour Organic SolidaritySociety is bonded through interdependence in a highly specialized division of labour AnomieWhen change happens too quickly and individualism gets out of control social bonds of societyget weaker The wellbeing of society becomes weak and a state of anomie normlessness occurs This may create more deviance Mertons Strain TheoryThere is an excess of institutionalized goals wealth status and power thatmake up success that are shown through our media Lack of legitimate means of attaining these goals such as education jobs etc The lack of means combined with the goals leads to anomie and strain Leads to 5 possible outcomes Conformity Pursues societys goals through legitimate means Innovation Accepts the institutionalized goals but rejects the legitimate means and finds alternativeways of meeting the goals Often is deviant eg selling stolen goods RitualismGiven up or reduced the goals but continues going through the motions of legitimate meansand working hard RetreatismPeople who reject the means and goals of society and often become isolated Drugs oralcohol may be a factor RebellionLike retreatism rejects both goals and means but substitutes new goals and means in its place Cloward and Ohlin Differential Opportunity TheoryAgrees with Mertons idea ofdifferential accessto legitimate means but also argues that there is differential access to illegitimate means too Thus people are more likely to join certain deviant subcultures Criminal GangsLower class neighbourhoods join and the gangs are similar to small businesses Retreatist GangsMostly groups of people characterized by drug or alcohol abuse Conflict GangsFight for status and power in the neighbourhood by using violence against a competitive group Agnew General Strain TheoryStrain may occur in multiple situations through lack oflegitimate meanswhen valued stimuli is removed and when negative stimuli is presented Strain is not enough to cause deviance it must be accompanied by negative affect emotions Cohen Theory of status frustrationThe idea that the social inequalities and structures of society arereproduced in the classroom Middle class measuring rodSchools emphasis on delayed gratification politeness and the value of hardwork Lower class boys are unable to measure up to this standard because they do not see the value in these qualities which creates status frustration Mutual ConversionLow class boys and together and develop a set of oppositional standard that enablethem to succeed reaction formation Learning TheoriesExplain deviant behaviour by the learning process Someone teachesdeviants to be deviant Sutherlands Differential Association TheoryDeviant behaviour is learned in the same way asconforming behaviour is in small intimate groups If people are exposed to more deviantthan conforming definitions they are likely to become deviants as the groups teach them techniques skills and motives justificationsreasons FrequencyThe groups we interact with more have more of an influence on us DurationThose interactions that are longer have more of an influence on us than shorter ones PriorityThe groups that are more intimate and that we have belonged to for longer have more of aninfluence on us IntensityThe more important a group is to us the more influence they have Sykes and Matza Neutralization TheoryPeople learn motives techniques of neutralization thatconvince them what they do isnt really wrong Denial of responsibilityShifts the blame of the crime off of themselves onto someone else the situationor environment Denial of InjuryPeople believe what they have done does not hurt anyone such as prostitution ordrug use Denial of victimPerception is that the victim deserved theory fate Condemnation of condemnersShifts the focus from their deviant behaviour to the deviantbehaviour of others especially those calling them deviant Says they are hypocrites Appeal to higher loyaltiesTheir behaviour is justified as serving a higher purpose such asprotecting a friend or family
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