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Week 5 - Chapter 5, & 9

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PHYS 1600
Mike Massa

Chapter 5 Origin of the Solar SystemStars transform matter from lighter elements into heavier onesHydrogen and helium account for 999 of all observed atoms in the universeStars shed matter into space The outer layers of stars are expelled at diff Rates continuous are called stellar winds and energetic bursts are planetary nebulae Gravity rotation and heat shaped the young solar systemSolar nebula a vast cloud of interstellar gas and dustMatter collapses to form star systems for four reasonsWinds from some stars compress nearby gas and dustThe explosive force of a nearby supernova compresses regions of preexisting interstellar cloudsPairs of clouds sometimes collide and compress each otherRegions of gas and dust radiate away enough heat to cool and condense without outside helpAs a result of gravitational pull inside the nebula the density pressure and temperature at the center began to increase producing a concentration of matter called the protosun Protoplanetary disks or proplyds a disk of material encircling a protostar or a newborn starThe increasing temperature of the nebula vaporized all icy substances in the inner region and pushed lighter gases like hydrogen and helium outward In this inner region where the Earth orbits most heavy elements remained and they formed the four inner planets mercury venus earth and mars Collisions in the early solar system led to the formation of planetsPlanet object that directly orbits a star Moons or natural satellites bodies that orbit larger objects which in turn orbit starsPlanetesimals primordial asteriodlike object from which the planets accreteddust and pebbles formed into theseProtoplanets planetesimals collided with anything in their paths many broke and fell into the sun but eventually mutual gravitation brought some together to form larger objects called protoplanets Accretion the coming together of smaller pieces of matter to form larger ones computer simulations of Newtons laws suggest that accretion continued over 100 million years and should lead to the formation of less than a half a dozen rocky planets Coreaccretion modeltraditional theory of giant planet formation suggests that while the inner regions of the solar system were heating up temperatures in the outer regions of the solar nebula remained cool Closer to being correctClyde Tombaugh1930pluto was listed as a planet then renamed dwarf planet in 2006 Dwarf planets do not have enough gravitational force mass to clear their area of other orbiting debris Gravitational instability model theory of the formation of giant planets Giant planets condensed into existence within a hundred thousand years without massive terrestrial Earthlike cores acting as seeds of their formation Orbital inclinations the angles of the orbital planes of the other planets with respect to the eclipticall are 7 degrees or lessAll planets orbit the Sun counterclockwiseOur moon was created as the result of a collision between Earth and a Mars sized body in a highly elliptical orbit Minor debris from the formation of the solar system still exists
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