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Midterm Review.docx

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Political Science
POLS 2250
Tim Mau

Week 1 Public administration – field of occupation or field of study – the use of managerial, political, and legal theories – it processes to fulfill legislative, executive, and judicial government mandates for the provision of regulatory and service functions for society as a whole Public Administration vs. Private Administration - similarities? o POSDCORB  Planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, budgeting - Differences? o Public admin. – service the public o Private admin. – for profit primarily o Public admin. – operates less efficiently o Public admin. – greater emphasis on accountability o Public admin. – HR system much more complicated o Public admin. – conducted in a fishbowl of publicity o Public admin. – political considerations (elections, duration of managers in service), cabinet solidarity, consistency in program delivery, protect minister, re-election Government Priorities 2008-2012 BUDGET 2008 – RESPONSIBLE LEADERSHIP - maintain strong fiscal management o debt reduction o delivering on tax back guarantee o keep spending focused and disciplined - strengthening Canada’s tax advantage o tax-free savings account introduced - investing in people o develop best-educated, most skilled and flexible workforce in the world o enhancements to grants and loan programs for students - investing in knowledge o money for science and technology - supporting communities and traditional industries - investing in infrastructure o make gas tax fund permanent - leadership at home o aboriginals, health and safety, vision of north, cleaner environment - leadership abroad o Canadian forces o International assistance BUDGET 2009 – Canada’ Economic Action Plan - global economic recession - G20 Commitment - Plan – stimulus must be 1) timely, 2) targeted, 3) temporary - Key priorities: o Improving access to financing, strengthening the financial system  Improve access to credit for individuals and business o Actions to help Canadians stimulate spending o Stimulate housing construction  Home reno tax credit (up to $1350 tax rebate) o Build infrastructure  $12B in infrastructure stimulus for municipalities o support for businesses and communities  support for auto, forestry, and manufacturing sectors BUDGET 2011 – Low Tax Plan for Jobs and Growth - global economy recovering - on target to eliminate federal deficit by 2015-2016 BUDGET 2012 – Jobs, Growth and Long-Term Prosperity - focus on growth and job creating - purposing further free trade agreements - opportunities for Aboriginals - sustainable social programs (increase age eligibility for Old age security) Week 2 - 7 modern concepts of bureaucracy (Martin Albrow) o rational organization o organizational inefficiency o rule by officials o public administration o administration by officials o the organization o modern society - Weber o Three types of authority  Traditional (heredity)  Charismatic (Jesus)  Legal/Rational (legitimated by rules) o Ideal –Type Bureaucracy  Specialization of Labour  Division of responsibilities – person could become very efficient if they only had to concentrate on a specific job  Hierarchical structure  Superior-subordinate relationship  Employment and promotion based on merit  Provided assurance and increased efficiency  Full-time employment  Full-time activity and major source of income  Decisions based on impersonal rules  Bureaucrats bound by certain rules when dealing with the public  Importance of written files  Maintaining written records of both the codified rules themselves and decisions made  Bureaucratic employment is separate from private life - Taylorism – scientific management  You can scientifically study work to see the best type of way to structure that job  His focus was the individual in the workplace, not society as a whole  One best way  Management took care setting and organizing the line, workers would be more effective  Strongly opposed overworking employees - Gulick and Urwick and the Theory of Organization o Span of control  Number of subordinates who report to one supervisor o Organization of duties  Top-down outlook (no executive should have more than 3 subordinates)  Bottom-up outlook (similar work should be grounded together o Staff and line functions  POSDCORB  Planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, budgeting Week 3 - Mary Follett o Focus on the circular response and integration  Circular response:  On one unilaterally acts n someone else – people interact with one another in ways that influence both parties  Integrative:  The need to combine diverse elements into a useful whole re-statement of the old idea aof division of labour - Hawthorne Experiment o Is not one best way to work o Employees respond favourably when they believe people were trying to help them o Importance of non-economic rewards o If a worker is being watched, it will lead to greater productivity - Hierarchy of needs o No best way to motivate employee  Physiological – food, clothing, sex  Safety – free from harm  Love/belonging – affection  Esteem – self-esteem  Self-actualization – reach potential - Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y o Theory X  People seeking as minimum work as possible and most be monitored  Lazy, not very bright o Theory Y  People are naturally motivated  Work comes naturally - Katz and Kahn’s Open System’s Approach o Open systems theorists felt organizations:  Need input – raw materials, employee energy  Produce output – products, services - Participatory Management o Argued that the characteristics Weber saw as such powerful engines of efficiency were n fact powerful roles for misdirection Week 4 - department: o an administrative unit compromising one or more organizational components over which a minister has direct ministerial management and control - classification systems for departments o based on the general policy fields address, or functions carried out by the department o another system identifies three types of departments by considering the relative power of departments as determine by size, budget, etc.  1) horizontal policy coordinative  most influential  strong in terms of responsibility and knowledge of research capability  central agencies  2) horizontal administrative coordinative  least influential  “nuts and bolts” departments that provide the wherewithal for other departments to operate  3) vertical constituency  provides services directly to the public  high-profile departments  largest bud
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