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Final

Review Notes for Final Exam

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLS 2250
Professor
Nanita Mohan
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter17TheManagementOfHumanResourcesTheConceptofMeritMeritisthemostpervasiveandenduringthemeinhumanresourcemanagementOnemustdistinguishbetweenthemeritprincipleandthemeritsystemThemeritprinciplehasoftenbeenexplainedasrequiringthatpublicserviceappointmentsbebasedexclusivelyonmeritinthesenseoffitnesstodothejobandthatcitizenshaveareasonableopportunitytobeconsideredforpublicserviceemploymentThemeritsystemisthemechanismconsistingofpoliciesproceduresandregulationsbywhichthemeritsystemispursuedThefederalPublicServiceCommissionwhichisresponsibleforsafeguardingthemeritprinciplethroughimplementationofthemeritsystemisobligedtoreconcilethemeritprinciplewithseveralotherimportantprinciplesOtherImportantPrinciplesTheMeritSystemisreconciledwithAprocessofstaffingwhichisfairandtransparentandappointeeswhoarecompetentandabletoworkinbothoftheofficiallanguagesThemerititselfshouldbeflexibleandconducivetotheefficientstaffingofpositionConcernsabouttheoperationofthemeritsystemItsproceduresareinflexibleandtherigidityofthesystemactuallyimpedesthesatisfactionofthemeritprincipleIn2003thefederalgovernmentpassedlegislationthatprovidedadefinitionofmeritthatattemptstointroducemoreflexibilityintothemeritsystemforitallowsmanagertomoveawayfromtheideaoflocatingthebestqualifiedcandidateandinsteadtohirepeopleonthebasisoftherequirementoftheagencyandanyqualificationsdeemednecessaryfortheperformanceofworkMerithasbeenpursuedwithinthebroadercontextoftraditionalpublicservicevaluesnamelyneutralityaccountabilityefficiencyandeffectivenessresponsivenessrepresentativenessintegrityfairnessandequityTheuniquenessofhumanresourcesmanagementinthepublicasopposedtoprivatesectorcanbeexplainedinlargepartbythepoliticalenvironmentwithinwhichpublicservantsworkEvolutionofHumanResourcesManagementCanbeviewedintermsoftheeffectonmeritandtoalesserdegreeonmotivationoftheshiftingimportanceofthedominantadministrativevaluesIthasdividedchronologicallyintosixperiodsThePatronageEraPre1918DominatedbyeffortstopromotepoliticalneutralitybyeliminatingoratleastminimizingpoliticalpatronageintheappointmentofthepublicservantsBetween1867and1918asmanyasfiveroyalcommissionsandjudicialinquiryonthefederalpublicservicedevotedconsiderableattentiontotheevilsofpatronagePatronagetookdifferentformsthemostcommonwasappointmentbasedonpartyaffiliationswhichoccurredatthelevelofthelocalconstituencyandwhichinvolvedboththememberoftheParliamentandthelocalpartymembersAsecondformwasappointmentsmadebythecabinettoseniorlevelpositionslargelyonthebasisofpartisanpoliticalconsiderationsAthirdformofappointeesrelatedtopositionsfilledformwithinthepublicserviceLastlytherewereagreaternumberofappointeesfollowingachangegovernmentwhensomeappointeesoftheoutgoinggoverningpartyweredismissedandreplacedbysupportersoftheincomingpartyThefirstmajorsteptowardtheabolitionofpatronagewastheCivilServiceAmendmentActof1908whichestablishedtheCivilServiceCommissionFromPatronagetoMerit191845BeganwiththepassageoftheCivilServiceActin1918ThemajorobjectiveoftheActwasthepromotionofeconomyandefficiencyinthenonpoliticalpublicserviceMeritwastobeachievedthroughselectionadappointmentwithoutregardtopoliticsreligionorinfluenceandthroughtheapplicationofmethodsofscientificemploymenttomaintaintheefficiencyoftheseselectedemployeesaftertheyentertheserviceSevererestrictionsintheActremainedunchangeduntil1967Theemphasisduringthe1920soneradicatingpatronageratherthanonimprovingefficiencyledtoasignificantdeclineinpatronageappointmentsandpartisanpoliticalactivitiesby1930Inthe1930sthecivilserviceCommissionwithitspersistentfocusonmeritintermsofselectionofthebestqualifiedcandidateslostgroundtotheTreasuryBoardwhichemphasizedeconomyandefficiencynotonlyinthehumanresourcesareabutthroughoutgovernmentThisemphasiscontinuedduringthewaryearsTheRootsofReform194666
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