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Political Science
POLS 3060
Cindy Clarke

Middle-Eastern Politics Terms/Places/Study notes Week 1: Ottoman Empire/History Arab: A term that is used to define a group of people that share one or more similar cultural and linguestic traits in Asia minor and parts of North Africa. Caliph: Titles given to the four great Muslim leaders after the death of the prophet, these years were known as golden years. Sultans of the Ottoman Empire began to title themselves Caliph due to the prestige of it, which also exemplifies the Islamic influence in the Ottoman Empire. Capitulations: Granted by the Sultan allowing Europeans to establish trading outposts in Ottoman territory in return for military aid when needed. Europeans were able to deal directly with locals (not through state) and live in the empire while not being subjected to empire law, but their nations law. Led to internal rebellion due to European spread of nationalist though and discontent about European influence and sacrificed the legitimacy of the state. Divan: Advisory board to the Sultan, the speaker of the board was the Grand Vizier Grand Vizier: Speaker of the Divan who speaks directly to the Sultan and represents the opinions of the Divan. Islam: A religion following the preaching and revelations of the prophet Mohammad Janissary Army: Janissary Infantry were the elite military force of the Ottoman Empire. They were non-muslim orphans taken in by the empire at a very young age, had one of the best educated and healthy lives in the empire, was a very prestigious position but were not allowed to marry or have children. Eventually they would be perceived as a nuisance and the Sultan would initiate a mass extermination of them in 1826. Millets/Millet System: The millet system is a testament to the flexibility of the Ottoman Empire as the millet system effectively allowed other religious cultures to exist within a dominantly Islamic state. Each millet sent a representative to Istanbul, if you broke the laws of the millet you were charged under the millet system set up by your community. This being said, there was discrimination to non-Muslims and there were some general empire laws that must be obeyed, but the millet system was quite progressive for an empire of its time. i Muslim: Someone who practices the religion of Islam Sipahi Cavalry: A special mounted military guard for the Sultan, freely joined and unlike janissary has economic incentives such as gaining land. In times of piece they served as tax collectors. Sultan: The leader of the Ottoman Empire, sometimes referred to as the Caliph. Has the final decision on all policies reflecting the empire, although European influences late in the Empires life had the de facto control due to debt. Tanzimat: Were a set of reforms that occurred over a period of 100 years in an attempt to westernize the empire due to noticeably falling behind rising powers in Europe. Set up European run military school, sent students abroad, instituted tax reforms that eliminated tax farming, established universities for civil servants and ministries. This created dissention amongst the elites which profited off of the tax farming. Also promoted nationalism which was a leading theme in Europe during this time period, leading to the Young Turks and similar nationalist movements. Tamariots: Standard conscript army of peasents that fought the wars, land owners would send peasants as payments to the Sultan. Tax Farming: A form of income and method of control for the Ottoman Empire. Local elites would tax the local population, keeping a decent portion for themselves and sending an amount to Instanbul for the empire. This was effective in maintaining control of the vast territory in the empire as it appointed local elites as representatives of sorts and served to provide the necessary funds for the empire. Ulema: An Islamic scholastic elite Week 2: Zionism Assimilation: Referring to the period of assimilation in Europe after the Jewish Enlightenment that occurred after rule in Napoleons France. Granted Jews full equality on conditions they accepted French law only and had loyalty to France. Aliyah: The alyahs were a series of mass jewish movements from Europe to settlements in Palistine. The first one was initiated by the Jewish organization Bilu. Bilu: A series of Zionist groups that form into Bilu to prepare for the Aliyahs. Bilu organizes first aliyah in 1882 to Palestine where people make their first Israeli settlement. Second one occurs in 1904. Dreyfus Affair (1891): Dreyfus was an officer in the French military, he was accused of treason for releasing documents in 1891 even though it was clear there was little evidence for such an accusation. It made jews in western Europe realize that there was still discrimination against them, and gave rise to a western European zionest movement. Theodore Herzl would be a major figure for this new movement.Haskalah: A word representing the Jewish enlightenment that occurred starting in Napoleons France due to equality they were granted as long as they obeyed French law and were loyal to the state. Due to this dichotomy of loyalty, a large portion of jews decided to immerse themselves in French culture, keeping religious faith something that would remain in the house and turning away from traditional garb and customs. Theadore Herzl (The Jew State): A leading critic of Western Europe as a haven of jews in the post-dreyfus world. A leading figure for the mobilization of Western European Jews to Palestine through his connections and the book The Jew State. Helped form the World Zionest Congress, Jewish National Fund and the World Zionest Organization. Moses Hess: Released his book before Herzl, first one who spoke of a Zionist ambition for Jerusalem, did not connect well for the Western Jews but had obtained a small following in eastern Europe. Jewish Enlightenment/Secular Awakening: See Haskalah Jewish National Fund: Set up by Herzl to prima
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