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POLS 3130 T. Riddell Final.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLS 3130
Professor
Troy Riddell
Semester
Fall

Description
POLSFinalWeek6JudicialIndependenceWhydowevalueindependenceWhydowevalueaccountabilityHowwecanweappropriatelyreconcilethetwoDoesorshouldhowwethinkaboutandmaintainindependenceandaccountabilitydependonwhetherjudgesarepolicymakersoradjudicatorsorproblemsolversAspectsofJudicialIndependenceProtectionsSecurityofTenureFinancialSecurityAdministrativeIndependenceincludingnointerferencebypoliticiansTradeoffsGoodBehaviourNoninterferenceinPoliticsSometiestolargersystemofgovernanceappointmentsbudgetsetcSecurityofTenureProvisionsintheConstitutionAct1867PreambleaConstitutionsimilarinprincipletothatoftheUnitedKingdoms99judgesofthesuperiorcourtsshallholdofficeduringgoodbehaviourbutshallberemovablebytheGovernorGeneralonaddressoftheSenateandHouseofCommonsAmendedin1960toprovideformandatoryretirementat75ProvisionsintheConstitutionAct1982s11dAnypersonchargedwithanoffencehasarighttobepresumedinnocentuntilprovenguiltyaccordingtolawinafairandpublichearingbyanindependentandimpartialtribunalActofSettlement1701gavesecurityoftenurebasedonwhattheCanadianconstitutiongetsinfluencefromJudgescanonlyberemovedfromthebenchforviolatingconditionsofgoodbehaviourButwhatshouldbeconsideredbadbehaviourHealthrelatedconcernsMakinganunpopulardecisionBiasedbuthowdoesonedifferentiatebiasedfromjudicialphilosophyTreatmentofcourtroomstaffJudicialcouncilsfederalandprovincialReviewcomplaintsaboutjudgesActasabufferbetweenthegovernmentandjudgesCantakedisciplinaryactionsagainstjudgeGovernmentscandismissjudgesbutproceduralprotectionsbuiltinConstitutionsuperiorcourtjudgescanonlybedismissedwithapprovalofHouseofCommonsandSenateLegislationfederalandprovincialfederallyappointedjudgesandprovincialcourtjudgesdismissalonlyafterjudicialcouncilrecommendationandvotebythelegislatureWhatabouttheimportanceofpoliticalculturemediaetcJudicialcouncilsarethefirstlevelofcomplaintagainstjudgesinOntarioFinancialsecurityProvisionsintheConstitutionAct1867PreambleaConstitutionsimilarinprincipletothatoftheUnitedKingdoms100salariesallowancesandpensionsofthejudgesoftheSuperiorDistrictandCountyCourtsbefixedandprovidedbytheParliamentofCanadaAppliesonlyexplicitlytos96courtsApplicationtos92provincialcourtstheFederalCourtsandtheSupremeCourtofCanadaiscontroversialProvisionsintheConstitutionAct1982s11dAnypersonchargedwithanoffencehasarighttobepresumedinnocentuntilprovenguiltyaccordingtolawinafairandpublichearingbyanindependentandimpartialtribunalValente1985financialsecurityacomponentofjudicialindependencebutnotinfringedbyexecutivedeterminationBeauregard1986sameforFederalCourtjudgesCantheexecutivelowersalariesaspartofageneralrollbackofpublicsectorfundingProvincialJudgesRemunerationcase1997heardbytheSupremeCourtofCanadainDec1996decisioninSept1997financialsecurityisacomponentofjudicialindependenceValenteitwasoktohaveageneralsalaryforalljudges1986Federalcourtjudgesalsoshouldhavefinancialsecurity1997casejudgessalarieswererolledbackwasseenasabreachofjudicialindependenceJudgesSalariesReference1997Lamermajorityunwrittenprincipleofjudicialindependencefoundinpreambleandcombinedwith11doftheChartermeansthatjudicialsalariesmustbeinsulatedfrompoliticalpressuresSolutionisCompensationCommissionsLaForestminoritythisisanovelextensionofjudicialindependencenotsupportedbytheconstitutionaltextSubsequentlitigationsurroundingrecommendationsbycompensationcommitteesSupremeCourtbelievedthatjudgesmustbeprotectedfinanciallysotheyarenotinfluencedbypoliticsSolutionthereshouldbeabufferzonebetweenthegovtmakingsalariesandthejudgesthemselvesEachsideappointspeopletoarguewhatjudgesshouldbepaidLaForestnothingintheConstitutionsaysweneedtogivejudgesfinancialsecurityThoughteveryoneelsewaslookingtoodeepintothetextandwereoverthinkingthecaseCompensationcommitteesgotocourtandarguewageincreasesdecreasesAdministrativeIndependenceHistoricallyDepartmentofJusticeresponsibleformaintainingandadministeringCourtsPotentialconflictofinterest1977CommissionerforFederalJudicialAffairssomeprovincesadoptsimilarschemesValente1985judgesmustcontrolcorecourtfunctionssuchasdocketandcontrollingcourtstaffSomecurrentissuesroleofadministrativejudgesShouldjudgeshavecontrolthatextendsbeyonddocketandcourtstaffValentewhatisneededforacourttobeimpartialsecurityoftenurefinancialsecurityadministrativeindependenceAdministrativeindependencegovernmentcannotinterferewithwhohearscertaincaseswhocontrolscorecourtfunctionsShouldtherebegreateradministrativeindependenceSupremeCourtlargelyadministersitselfroleofadministrativejudgehowmuchcontrolshouldtheyhaveoverotherjudgesNoninterferenceConvention1976JudgesAffairTrudeaucabinetministerspersonallyphoningjudgesaboutcasescurrentlybeforethebenchOnemetwithajudgeduringatrialtoexpressconcernsabouttheinternationalimplicationsofatrialAsecondcalledajudgetofindoutwhenajudgmentwouldbehandeddownAthirdcalledaboutacontemptcitationforacolleaguewhoreactedangrilyinpublicaboutadecisionMcCormick1994Russell1987NegativepublicreactiongaverisetonewcommunicationrulesthathavebeenmostlyadheredtoonlycommunicationistobethroughtheMinisterofJustice
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