1. 2 sets of questions, one in each set – 5 questions
2. Do you think the values of researchers affect the goals of their
research studies ontologically and epistemologically
a. Ontology – what is there? Is there a truth independent of us?
What exists in the world?
b. Epistemology – what can we know about the world? Is it
possible to acquire knowledge about the world? Can we know it
entirely or partly?
c. Methodology – how do we obtain knowledge?
d. Researchers values influence their research – most basic level:
choice of research
e. Influences the WAY we study a subject
i. i.e. measuring the economy of a country:
1. Liberal question – “what is the inequality?”
2. Conservative – “what is the economic growth over
a certain span?”
f. Values colour our interpretation of evidence – we accept
something that favours our normative beliefs instead of
3. Explain how a positivist and interpretivist values would affect
experimental, explorative, and descriptive goals of
a. Logical Positivism – science can study social reality relatively
unproblematically and arrive at objective conclusions
b. Classical positivism – there is a world independent of our
interaction with it
i. Naturalism – the social world is like the natural world. It
is governed by patterns or “laws” that reflect causal
ii. There is a fundamental distinction between facts and
iii. Empiricism – observation (sight, taste, hearing, smell,
touch) is the source of all knowledge
iv. Induction – individual observations general rule – if we
consistently see that B followsA, we can conclude there
is a causal relationship between Aand