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[POLS 1400] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes fot the exam (213 pages long!)


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLS 1400
Professor
Nanita Mohan
Study Guide
Final

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UofG
POLS 1400
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Canadian Political Culture
- In 1963, the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism spoke of
English and French as Canada's two founding races. Since this unfortunate
and inaccurate declaration, the Canadian government has gradually moved to
include Aboriginal peoples as defined as First Nations, Inuit and Métis as the
third founding group alongside the English and the French.
- However, this grouping of French, English and Aboriginals, while giving
Canada its unique aggregate identity has colored its history and political
institutions with conflict. Moving from assimilation to accommodation and
between conflict and consensus, the Canadian political culture is dominated
by a highly dynamic society and political and policy leaders playing a delicate
game of brokerage between the many groups.
- Aboriginal
o First settled what is now Canada more than 10,000 years ago
o A variety of languages and cultures
o Hunter-gatherer economies, established agriculture and fishing
industries
- French
o The French initially colonized what is now Quebec but many changes
came with the British victory on the Plains of Abraham
o The changes did not affect the role of the Catholic Church or the
system of codified civil law
o The early 1960s and the Quiet Revolution can be seen as a major
turning point for Quebec both within the province and with their
relationship with the rest of Canada
- English
o The dominant group in both Canadian society and political culture
o Initially influenced by British ties, economic realities have moved
relationship closer to the United States
o Early attempts to assimilate both French and Aboriginal groups failed
- Liberalism (emphasis on individual freedom), conservatism (emphasis on
order and traditional moral values), and socialism (emphasis on social and
economic equality) are the central political ideologies found in Canada. The
common tendency for political actors in Canada is to tact towards the center,
attempting to appeal to the broadest base of support. All three major parties
have been challenged by ideological struggles within their own elected and
individual party members.
- A very important theoretical contribution to understanding Canada's major
political ideologies was Gad Horowitz's 1966 essay Conservatism,
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Liberalism and Socialism in Canada: An Interpretation. Horowitz argues that
by using Louis Hartz's fragment theory we can understand how the
tradition of Canadian Toryism (which was not present in the United States)
allowed for greater acceptance of state enterprises and social support
program. The liberal rejection of state involvement in the economy and
society was not as present.
- Liberal Democracy - A political system where powers of government are
limited by law, rights and liberties are recognized and free elections are held
- Welfare State - A state where the state provides protection from hardships
such as illness and unemployment and a minimum standard of living is
recognized.
- Diversity - the accommodation of different cultures, values, perspectives and
practices.
- Sovereignty - Canada's departure from British rule was slow and deliberate
and followed by a close and sometimes arduous relationship with the United
States.
- Regionalism - As the second largest country in world in terms of size,
Canada's territory is very difficult to govern. Regional identities contribute
positively to the overall Canadian political culture but can also place stress
on the delivery of policy and distribution of federal funds. As Prime Minister
Mackenzie King once remarked, while some countries had too much history,
Canada has too much geography.
- Dominant Middle Class - The general affluence of Canadians results in most
identifying themselves as middle-class. In Canada, class cleavages are much
less recognized traditionally than regional or ethnic cleavages.
- Elusive Canadian Identity - National naval gazing has become an official
Canadian sport right beside hockey and lacrosse and coincidentally one of
the main features of Canadian political culture and identity is to question
Canadian political culture and identity.
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
- What is Politics?
o Politics the activity by which rival claims are settled by public
authorities
o The boundaries of what is considered to be political are located where
the state’s authority reaches
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