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POLS 1400 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Canada, Agriculture, Responsible Government


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLS 1400
Professor
Nanita Mohan
Study Guide
Final

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POLS 1400

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POLS Lecture 1
Terminology
-politics: “who gets what, when and how” (Harold Laswell)
-who are we voting for? - the MP
-not voting for the governor general who REPRESENT US!
-who is appointed/voted?
-what are we voting the “who” for?
-3 levels of government (Federal, Provincial, Municipal)
-then there are three sub levels of power who do certain things (executive, legislative and
judicial)
-When?- vote for the federal level every 4 years
-How? : we call ourselves a democracy but past elections had a 60% turnout so 40% aren't
voting
-therefore, how is it a democracy if were going by what 60% Canadians are saying?
-in Australia it is mandatory to vote if not you will be fined however is this a democracy? More
so a dictatorship
-who can vote?: 18 years and older, must be a Canadian citizen
-Government : set of institutions that make and enforce collective, public decisions also the
current group in power
-ideology: body of ideas used in support of an economic, political or social theory
-conservative or liberal economically, politically, socially
-Public administration: the way in which governments conduct themselves through
bureaucratic processes, a discipline and a practice
-Basically how the government manages itself and how it micromanages tasks to otherwise
branches
-Bureaucracy: a form of organization
-Politicians: elected officials
-Bureaucrats: appointed officials
Political Spectrum
-Democracy: ruled by the ppl., for the ppl., of the ppl. (Ab Lincoln)
-1. Direct Democracy- in which ppl. have a direct say in maters of the state
-for example, Plebiscites, Referendums
-a referendum is a general vote by the electorate on a single political question that has been
referred to them for a direct decision
-So Quebecers want to leave Canada so the question presented to the public is a yes or no
question
-they are binding
-a plebiscite is the direct vote of all the members of an electorate on an important public
question such as a change in the constitution
-not binding
-2. Representative Democracy: in which ppl. Appoint representations to speak for them in
matters of the state
-Ridings (“x” is who you want to be in power and the majority vote become the MP)
-there are 388 ridings in Canada as of 2015
-3. Deliberative Democracy: governing decisions made based on discussions by citizens
(provincial and municipal level)
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Economic Spectrum
Capitalism- economic system based on the private ownership and the free market
Mixed economy- mixture of private and state control
Socialism- means of reproduction and distribution controlled by the government
Communism- all property owned by all in a classless society
Ideological Spectrum
Left- liberal
Right- conservative
Centrist- moderate
Brokerage- party
-formula of saying you are a ardour liberalist or conservatism doesn't really work in Canada
because we are all a bit of both
Elements of Democracy
-there is a demos : the population who can vote (Canadian citizens age 18+
-there is a territory where decision apply (Canada if federal and the provinces if provincial and
the cities if municipal)
-there is a decision making procedure
1. Who can vote?
-Canadian citizen
-18 years+
-landed immigrants cant vote and you need 67 its and have to live in Canada for 3/4 years
before becoming a permanent resident
-so the question is: should landed immigrants be allowed to vote and should dual citizenship
holders be allowed to vote?
-there is an alternative voting system called the ranking system
-Trudeau wanted to change it but we are unsure of what the ppl want so it was not changed
Liberalism in Canada
-embraces change in society
-classical liberalism is that we have the ability to do whatever you want and the state had
limited control
-about self
-now liberalism is about communities and groups
-the government has become involved
-Liberalism is welfare oriented but taxes are high
-Primary objective of economic activity is to improve human welfare
-how is liberalism changing? - state is becoming more involved
-focus on corpus to improve human welfare
-might be focussing too much on groups though
-Individualism is replaced by collectivism
-diversity, multicultural policies
-Canada was the first country in the world to have a multicultural policy enacted Pierre
Trudeau
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