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Final

POLS 2250 Final: PAG Exam Essay Qs


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLS 2250
Professor
Tim Mau
Study Guide
Final

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Public Administration and Governance Exam Questions 1 & 2
1. List and define some of the key traditional public service values as well as
some of the new values that have been emerging with the advent of New Public
Management. What has been the impact of these new public service values on the
traditional ones? Are they compatible or has the emergence of a new set of public
service values weakened and/or rendered the traditional ones irrelevant?
Traditional Public Service Values
Neutrality political neutrality (non-partisanship) vs. value neutrality (personal
biases, opinions and expectations)
o Impossible to be value neutral
o Politics administration dichotomy
o Appointments
o Political activity
1. 1918-1967 (none)
2. Public Service Employment Act 1967 no political activity
allowed
3. 1991 Supreme Court Ruling Public Servants can run for
office but must take leave of absence w/out pay resign if
elected
Accountability (for process) Hold public servants accountable for their actions.
o High degree of accountability in civil service due to demands by public for
this public confidence in functioning of government bureaucracy critical.
o
3 levels
1. Public & Elected Government Ministerial accountability,
constitution, electoral and parliamentary procedures,
opposition parties, freedom of information act,
2. Individual Department & its head the DM looking for
ways to find DM accountable and not always on shoulder of
Cabinet Minister NPM idea ***PAPER***, auditor general
etc
3. Within Department hierarchy, subordinates and superiors
Breakdown in accountability can lead to irresponsibility, corruption
etc. sponsorship scandal
Efficiency & Effectiveness historically dominant value has been efficiency: 3
Es
o Economy acquire goods and services at best price
o Effectiveness the extent to which objectives are realized
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o Efficiency expend resources in most profitable or sensible manner
Best possible result for least possible cost
Responsiveness respond to the needs & demands of political institutions and
public
Representativeness public service reflects gender, ethnic, religious and
socioeconomic groups
Fairness & Equity Decisions must be fair in substance and procedure
Integrity- ethics in public administration; preserve public trust and confidence
New Public Management Values
Innovation
o New and innovative ways of providing services to the public at lower costs
and greater efficiency.
Service
o A greater orientation towards service
o Viewing citizens and clients looking for the best available services
Teamwork
o Stemming from the horizontal and private sector partnership push.
o A greater emphasis on cooperation over a strong top-down organizational
and command structure.
Quality
o A greater focus on the quality of services provided to the public
o Seeing government as competing with private sector groups in the
provision of services.
Leadership
o Government steering not rowing focus on Public-Private partnerships
o Public Servants given more autonomy to carry out their mandates
Impact & Compatibility
The introduction of NPM management values has had a negative impact on the
traditional values of the public service.
The “bargain” between Ministers and Public Servants severely compromised as a
result of the adoption of NPM management values and practices.
o Al Mushat Affair: a breakdown in the hierarchal structure of the civil
service and greater autonomy of lower level civil servants lead to a
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breakdown in accountability where no minister or senior public servant
was willing to accept blame over the scandal.
Affair the result of an Iraqi Ambassador immigrating to Canada and
slipping through oversight controls as Canadian Forces were
deployed in the First Gulf War.
o Increased autonomy comes at the expense of accountability in the public
service
The values and practices of NPM do not fully translate over to the public sector
as certain goals of the public service run against private sector values
o Example: mail and other services provided to remote areas as part of the
government fulfilling a principle to provide services to all its citizens
o Conflicting goals of governments the Tobacco Industry : Government
subsidies to farmers growing tobacco as a means of economic stimulus
while at the same time spending funds on anti-smoking campaigns to
reduce health care costs
Illogical from the prospective of private business.
Hard to measure performance goals due to the conflicting and
messy problems government deals with such as the one above.
Private management values do not place as much an emphasis on accountability
as do public sector ones.
o The need for the protection of trade secrets and business plans results in
a less open process.
o Sleeman Centre: Nustadia development would not release its books to
government in aftermath of financia ldifficulties with area in order to to
protect its “business plan and model” – runs countre to traditional notions
of full accountability in public sector
o
2. Is New Public Management a reform fad or fashion that no longer has
relevance? What, if anything, has emerged to replace it? In your response you
should also identify and explain the various elements of the Canadian model of
public sector reform as well as whether this model positions us to take advantage
of the 'next wave' of administrative reform.
THESIS: New Public Management, though never fully adopted in the context of
Canadian Public Management, has largely been overtaken by reforms known as
New Public Service that combine some elements of NPM while maintaining the
traditional values and unique character of the public service.
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