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Final

POLS 2250 Final: Pols. 2250 - Class Notes


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLS 2250
Professor
Tim Mau
Study Guide
Final

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Monday, January 8, 2014
What is Public Administration?
- Public administration
o A field of practice (occupation);
Individuals that work for the government
o 2) field of study (Discipline)
Focusing on public bureaucracy
- Public Bureaucracy
o System of authority, people, offices and methods that government
uses to achieve it’s objectives
Create organizations to deliver services/programs to society
- Woodrow Wilson (1887) former president of the United States
o First to articulate the need for a science of administration
Administrative study required for 2 key reasons
Discover what governments can properly do
Determine how they can do these proper things with
the utmost efficiency and least possible cost
Left (ideological spectrum) state power is key
More resources/services
Right (ideological spectrum) state power should be limited
Less resources/services
Make the public sector more business-like on terms of how
they conduct themselves
- Leonard White
o Public administration was similar within all institutions
Public Vs. Private Administration
Similarities PSDCORB apply them to both sectors (public & private)
- Planning
- Organizing
- Staffing
- Directing
- Coordinating
- Reporting
- Budgeting
Differences
1. Public goods interest vs. Profit / Bottom line

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a. Public based on societies interest
i. (right thing to do )
ii. Gain electoral support
b. Private based solely on profit
2. Public Administration Less Efficient
a. No profit motivation
i. no incentive to work harder
b. Provision of Unprofitable Services
i. Private sector not interested in non-profit organizations
c. Political considerations
i. Elections
1. Prime Minister chooses to call election
a. Use to their advantage to call an election when
they think they will be best elected
ii. Duration
1. Minister who heads a department can be shifted
a. New political heads new priorities
2. Succession planning
iii. Cabinet solidarity
1. Consultation takes time slow process
2. Private sector does not have to consult with as many
people
a. CEOs are able to do things very quickly
3. Government in Canada has become more Prime
Ministerial -
iv. Ministerial interference
1. Young staff who try to interfere with a department
a. Don’t know how things work/their place
v. Need for consistency in the program delivery
1. Efficiency for equality
2. Private does not have to worry about small markets
a. Territories
vi. Need to protect minister
1. Minister is responsible for all
2. Hard to take risks because of failure
a. Media will react and destroy Minister
vii. Re-election
1. Parties are interested in getting elected… once elected…
focus on getting re-elected
2. Private thinks more long term because there is no time
limit on how long they will be in the
company/organization
viii. Neutrality
1. Public servants can keep their jobs even though the
party can change (Canada)
2. Private can get fired

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3. Accountability is more complex in the public sector
a. Private reports to CEO and board of directors
b. Public Deputy Ministers report to Ministers
i. Appointed by the Prime Minister
ii. More Complex
4. Human Resource Constraints
a. People who are good at their jobs need to get them quicker
i. Government takes too long
5. Media Scrutiny
a. Public sector is constantly scrutinized by other parties/media
b. Public information must be made PUBLIC (effects all citizens bigger
news)
6. Persuasion and Direction
a. Government managers have to mediate a wide range of pressures in
order to survive
b. Private Issues are dealt with superior management and there is little
bitching about it
ROLE OF GOVERNMENT
1. OWNER AND PRODUCER E.G., LCBO, CBC, VIA RAIL, TVO, CANADA POST
a. Not a lot of support of state involvement by state economy
b. LCBO brings in 1.5 Billion a year profit
c. Government departments are less efficient than a Crown Corporation
2. REGULATOR AND SUPERVISOR E.G., CFIA, CANADIAN DAIRY
COMMISSION, CRTC, CANADIAN AIR TRANSPORT SECURITY AUTHORITY
a. Regulating standards
b. Can establish rules and procedures over the marketplace/ institutions
c. Quality, pricing, advertising regulations
3. INCOME REDISTRIBUTOR E.G., ATLANTIC CANADA OPPORTUNITIES
AGENCY, HRSDC, INDUSTRY CANADA
a. Redistribute income in a fair way
b. The middle class is becoming extinct as the rich get richer and the
poor get poorer
c. Welfare
4. PROTECTOR E.G., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, SOLICITOR GENERAL,
DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENCE, BANK OF CANADA, ENVIRONMENT
CANADA, RCMP, CSIS
a. Creating a safe and stable society
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