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Midterm

POPM 4230 Midterm: Lecture 5-9 Summary Notes for Midterm 1
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by OneClass254892 , Fall 2016
12 Pages
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Fall 2016

Department
Population Medicine
Course Code
POPM 4230
Professor
Terri O' Sullivan
Study Guide
Midterm

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Swine Industry Production Systems and Biosecurity
World Meat Consumption
- 1.3 Billion pigs marketed world-wide each year
- 43% of all meat consumed is pork
- 103 Million tonnes of pork produced each year
- As world pop expands, so does pop of pigs
- As economies of developing countries increase pork consumption increases
Major Swine Provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba
Pork = an economically important agricultural export commodity for the country
- 2010: Canada exported $2.77 billion of pork to over 130 countries (over 3 billion now)
- 2010: 22.2 million head of swine produced
- 2010: Canada exported $1.42 billion of beef to over 70 countries
Pork export = 3rd highest farm gate income behind wheat and canola
Canada is the #1 exporter of live swine
~ 6 million live pigs exported per year most to the USA (#2 China/Japan/Russia)
- 54% early weaned or feeder pigs
- 43% market weight pigs and
- 3% as sows and boars
** health of Canadian pig herd is important helps us keep good relationship w. export market
Pigs in North America
- Canada markets >20 million pigs
- 100,000 pet pigs in North America
- Pigs = models for human medical research
- Pigs = important source for human organ transplant
QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAMS
FOOD SAFETY
- Canadian QA programs 1998
- Animal Care Assurance program Jan 2012 (animal welfare)
- 98% participation voluntary
- validators (vets serve as validators)
BIOSECURITY STANDARDS New 2012
- Recommendations and Standards
~ want to be able to tell trade partners about our good biosecurity standards
CODE OF PRACTICE (new version released 2014)
ONTARIO SWINE INDUSTRY
- # of herds is decreasing
- ONT pig farm size increasing production increasing
- 97% of farms are family owned
- land-based farms for crop production (corn + soybeans) and nutrient management (manure used to fertilize crops)
- contributed over $4 million to provincial economy
- > 27,000 jobs (2009)
- approx. 5 million hogs marketed per year (2010)
Marketing System
- pigs sold through a marketing board no longer mandatory
- bonus for lean, well-muscled pigs (index)
- marketed at 105-115 kg live weight
- no boar meat sold in Canada boar taint = hormones make meat smell, taste bad
- price paid for a specific pig fluctuates based on economic demand
~ no Quota like dairy and poultry
Swine Economics
FIXED COSTS OF PRODUCTION = barn, labor, utilities
VARIABLE COSTS OF PRODUCTION
= feed costs are #1 expense, fluctuates w. cost of corn, # of pigs in barn (hog price/market, genetics, nutrition, animal health)
Why does the price of a market pig fluctuate?
Supply and Demand
- export markets
- lean hog features price discovery (Chicago Merchantile Exchange)
- contract (lock in at a certain price)
USD/CAD Exchange Rate - USD historically stronger than CAD
OntarioSwineIndustry
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** Hampshire breed (belt) = good growth rates and lean carcass
**Duroc (red/brown) = good growth rates, lean carcass yield
**Lacombe(Landrase?) (big muma) = good to cross w., litter size, milk yield, good mothers
** Yorkshire (stiff ears) = large frame, good growing pigs, good milk producers and mothers
TYPES OF SWINE FARMS
FARROW TO FINISH = +/- raise own replacement gilts (gilts = never had a baby)
WEANER PRODUCERS = sell pigs at 20-25 kg
GROW-FINISH OPERATION = buy 20-25kg pigs and raise to market age
BREEDING STOCK SUPPLIERS = sell gilts and boars to others, supply boars to AI stud, most pigs still go for market hogs
SEW (SEGREGATED EARLY WEANING) or Multi-site production (multiple sow herds send pigs to one nursery)
Production Phase: BREEDING
- sows in individual stall or group pens stay here until confirmed pregnant
- boars in individual stalls or pens
- Artificial insemination common
- natural breeding 1 boar/20 sow
Production Phase: GESTATION
- sows housed in individual stalls or group pens
- gestation length ~ 115days (3 months, 3 weeks, 3 days)
- combination of stalls and pens
PROS and CONS of Stalls and Pens
ADVANTAGES OF STALLS
- monitor and manage at individual level (monitor eating, BCS)
- more humane
- prevent injuries
DISADVANATGES OF STALLS
- limited to stall, cannot express natural behaviour
- since cannot express this more bar biting etc. can happen
ADVANTAGES OF GROUPS
- pigs social animals, like doing exploratory behaviour and exhibit natural behaviours in this way
- groups w. in bigger groups when provide little dividers
- now know how to better prevent fighting and hierarchy from occurring
~ frequent feeding, multiple location w. in pen
DISADVANTAGES OF GROUPS:
- cannot monitor individuals or who’s eating what
- sows vicious and fight (even to death)
- more likely to get injured from another sow and in general bc more room to move around
** group housing offered to sows after so many days of gestation want to limit any pregnancy loss and stress
Production Phase: FARROWING
- sows farrow (give birth) in crates
- piglets weaned at 14-28 days old (~21 days of age in ONT)
~ crates washed before new sows move in (all in/all out)
FARROWING CRATES = help protect piglets from crushing, sow lies down slowly and pig have time to move out of sows way
pen does not prevent flopping, slows down descent, pigs crushed to death when sow lies, can loose half litter in 1 day
ALL IN/ALL OUT
- allow room to dry after disinfecting/washing
- all piglets come in at once and leave at once decrease spread of disease from batch to batch
- minimize frequency of mixing pigs (can cause stress and trigger more disease)
- older pigs/kept pigs are a source of potential pathogens for young pigs w.out fully developed immune systems
If have continuous flow on a farrow to finish farm, where would this be?
~ in gestation and finisher areas, older pigs more immune to different things, Ideally want all in all out though
ALL IN/ALL OUT vs. CONTINUOUS FLOW terms applied to farrowing, nursery, and finishing stages
All-in/All-out
Continuous Flow
Room/Barn filled all at once
New pigs constantly moved into room/barn
Room/Barn completely emptied and cleaned before new pigs enter
Room/Barn NEVER completely empty
Decreased disease spread
More risk of disease
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Production Phase: NURSERY
- move in at ~ 3 weeks old and 5 kg
- housed in groups males and females
- remain here for ~7wks
- move out at ~10 weeks old and 25 kg
Production Phase: FINISHING
- housed in groups
- remain here until reach market weight ~ 110 kg
- spend 100-120 days in finishing barn
- pigs are ~ 6 months old when reach market weight
Pig Flow: FARROW-TO-FINISH
* pink arrows = sows
* red arrows = piglets
~ breeding area should be far from nursery
Pig Flow: MULTI-SITE PRODUCTION
- different sites geographically (could be across the road, in a diff province)
- logistically, not big enough farm
- allows for specialization (sows vs. piglet management)
- from disease standpoint- gets nursery pigs away from other pigs
- cheaper to transport the little guys bc don’t take up as much room
~ do transport hogs just not as much, as far
BIOSECURITY
= refers to the steps taken to protect the pig farm from entry of disease agents viral , bacterial, fungal, parasitic
~PEDV = Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus
CANADA BIOSECURITY FOR PIGS
- farms separated geographically
- country separated from Europe, Mexico, Africa
- Climate
- ie. hot summer kills TGE and B hyodysenteriae
- cold winter ensures confinement rearing
- we do not have problems with feral pigs
** New pigs arriving in a herd are the most common source of disease:
1. Buy pigs from 1 source w. known health status
2. Buy from herd with good biosecurity
3. Quarantine new boars/gilts for at least 60 days test for disease, vaccinate, expose to sentinel pigs
4. Reduce the # of new pigs brought into herd ~ AI most common way (although semen can be a source of disease too)
5. Build new barns away from other herds 3km
Control People Movement ~ Signage, used to help control pathogen entry
ACCESS ZONES
Controlled Access Zone CAZ
- pig farm yard
- buildings and driveway
- access limited
~ guest parking and smaller deliveries outside CAZ
Restricted Access Zone
- where pigs are housed
- defined entry protocol ~ ex. provide clothing to guests, can’t enter if sick etc.
* zones used to decrease risk of pathogens coming in
Biosecurity: PEOPLE
1. Restricted access to barn signs, lock doors
2. Wash hands or shower
3. Change from street clothes into barn boots and coveralls
Biosecurity: VEHICLES
Vehicles can be contaminated by pig manure from other farms pig transport, feed, dead-stock etc.
1. Ensure trucks that have been to other farms have been cleaned
2. Don’t allow vehicles near barn CAZ- controlled access zone)
3. Have dead-stock pick-up at end of lane (~dead stock trucks are pathogen factories)
~ use old school busses to transport piglets
- Truck Wash Bays (must clean all before going to a new farm, pressure wash and make sure they dry)
 
PigFlow:FarrowtoFinish
Nursery Finishing
Farrowing
Breeding Gestation
All production
stages on the
same site
‐ 
 
‐ ‐
PigFlow:Multisite
Production
Breeding Gestation Farrowing
Nursery
Finishing
Production stages
on different sites
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Description
find more resources at oneclass.com Swine Industry – Production Systems and Biosecurity World Meat Consumption - 1.3 Billion pigs marketed world-wide each year - 43% of all meat consumed is pork - 103 Million tonnes of pork produced each year - As world pop expands, so does pop of pigs - As economies of developing countries increase pork consumption increases Major Swine Provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba Pork = an economically important agricultural export commodity for the country - 2010: Canada exported $2.77 billion of pork to over 130 countries (over 3 billion now) - 2010: 22.2 million head of swine produced - 2010: Canada exported $1.42 billion of beef to over 70 countries  Pork export = 3 highest farm gate income behind wheat and canola  Canada is the #1 exporter of live swine ~ 6 million live pigs exported per year – most to the USA (#2 China/Japan/Russia) - 54% early weaned or feeder pigs - 43% market weight pigs and - 3% as sows and boars ** health of Canadian pig herd is important – helps us keep good relationship w. export market Pigs in North America - Canada markets >20 million pigs - 100,000 pet pigs in North America - Pigs = models for human medical research - Pigs = important source for human organ transplant QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAMS FOOD SAFETY - Canadian QA programs – 1998 - Animal Care Assurance program – Jan 2012 (animal welfare) - 98% participation – ▯voluntary▯ Ontario - validators (vets serve as validators) Swine BIOSECURITY STANDARDS – New 2012 Industry - Recommendations and Standards ~ want to be able to tell trade partners about our good biosecurity standards CODE OF PRACTICE (new version released 2014) ONTARIO SWINE INDUSTRY - # of herds is decreasing - ONT pig farm size increasing – production increasing - 97% of farms are family owned - land-based farms for crop production (corn + soybeans) and nutrient management (manure used to fertilize crops) - contributed over $4 million to provincial economy - > 27,000 jobs (2009) - approx. 5 million hogs marketed per year (2010) Marketing System - pigs sold through a marketing board – no longer mandatory - bonus for lean, well-muscled pigs (index) - marketed at 105-115 kg live weight - no boar meat sold in Canada – boar taint = hormones make meat smell, taste bad - price paid for a specific pig fluctuates based on economic demand   ~ no Quota like dairy and poultry Swine Economics FIXED COSTS OF PRODUCTION = barn, labor, utilities VARIABLE COSTS OF PRODUCTION = feed costs are #1 expense, fluctuates w. cost of corn, # of pigs in barn (hog price/market, genetics, nutrition, animal health) Why does the price of a market pig fluctuate? Supply and Demand - export markets - lean hog features – price discovery (Chicago Merchantile Exchange) - contract (lock in at a certain price) USD/CAD Exchange Rate - USD historically stronger than CAD find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com ** Hampshire breed (belt) = good growth rates and lean carcass **Duroc (red/brown) = good growth rates, lean carcass yield **Lacombe(Landrase?) (big muma) = good to cross w., litter size, milk yield, good mothers ** Yorkshire (stiff ears) = large frame, good growing pigs, good milk producers and mothers TYPES OF SWINE FARMS FARROW TO FINISH = +/- raise own replacement gilts (gilts = never had a baby) WEANER PRODUCERS = sell pigs at 20-25 kg GROW-FINISH OPERATION = buy 20-25kg pigs and raise to market age BREEDING STOCK SUPPLIERS = sell gilts and boars to others, supply boars to AI stud, most pigs still go for market hogs SEW (SEGREGATED EARLY WEANING) or Multi-site production (multiple sow herds send pigs to one nursery) Production Phase: BREEDING - sows in individual stall or group pens – stay here until confirmed pregnant - boars in individual stalls or pens - Artificial insemination common - natural breeding – 1 boar/20 sow Production Phase: GESTATION - sows housed in individual stalls or group pens - gestation length ~ 115days (3 months, 3 weeks, 3 days) - combination of stalls and pens PROS and CONS of Stalls and Pens ADVANTAGES OF STALLS - monitor and manage at individual level (monitor eating, BCS) - more humane - prevent injuries DISADVANATGES OF STALLS - limited to stall, cannot express natural behaviour - since cannot express this more bar biting etc. can happen ADVANTAGES OF GROUPS - pigs social animals, like doing exploratory behaviour and exhibit natural behaviours in this way - groups w. in bigger groups when provide little dividers - now know how to better prevent fighting and hierarchy from occurring ~ frequent feeding, multiple location w. in pen DISADVANTAGES OF GROUPS: - cannot monitor individuals or who’s eating what - sows vicious and fight (even to death) - more likely to get injured from another sow and in general bcmore room to move around ** group housing offered to sows after so many days of gestation – want to limit any pregnancy loss and stress Production Phase: FARROWING - sows farrow (give birth) in crates - piglets weaned at 14-28 days old (~21 days of age in ONT) ~ crates washed before new sows move in (all in/all out) FARROWING CRATES = help protect piglets from crushing, sow lies down slowly and pig have time to move out of sows way  pen does not prevent ▯flopping▯, slows down descent, pigs crushed to death when sow lies, can loose half litter in 1 day ALL IN/ALL OUT - allow room to dry after disinfecting/washing - all piglets come in at once and leave at once – decrease spread of disease from batch to batch - minimize frequency of mixing pigs (can cause stress and trigger more disease) - older pigs/kept pigs are a source of potential pathogens for young pigs w.out fully developed immune systems If have continuous flow on a farrow to finish farm, where would this be? ~ in gestation and finisher areas, older pigs more immune to different things, Ideally want all in all out though ALL IN/ALL OUT vs. CONTINUOUS FLOW – terms applied to farrowing, nursery, and finishing stages All-in/All-out Continuous Flow Room/Barn filled all at once New pigs constantly moved into room/barn Room/Barn completely emptied and cleaned before new pigs enter Room/Barn NEVER completely empty Decreased disease spread More risk of disease find more resources at oneclass.com find more resour es at  neclass.c‐ ‐ Pig Flow: Farrow‐to‐Finish   Production Phase: NURSERY - move in at ~ 3 weeks old and 5 kg - housed in groups – males and females Nursery Finishing - remain here for ~7wks – h - move out at ~10 weeks old and 25 kg All production Farrowing stages on the – same site Production Phase: FINISHING - housed in groups - remain here until reach market weight ~ 110 kg Breeding Gestation - spend 100-120 days in finishing barn - pigs are ~ 6 months old when reach market weight Pig Flow: FARROW-TO-FINISH Pig Flow: Multi‐site  * pink arrows = sows Production * red arrows = piglets     ‐   Breeding Gestation Farrowing ~ breeding area should be far from nursery Pig Flow: MULTI-SITE PRODUCTION - different sites – geographically (could be across the road, in a diff province) Nursery - logistically, not big enough farm on different sites - allows for specialization (sows vs. piglet management)     Finishing - from disease standpoint- gets nursery pigs away from other pigs - cheaper to transport the little guys bc don’t take up as much room ~ do transport hogs just not as much, as far BIOSECURITY = refers to the steps taken to protect the pig farm from entry of disease agents – viral , bacterial, fungal, parasitic ~PEDV = Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus CANADA BIOSECURITY FOR PIGS - farms separated geographically - country separated from Europe, Mexico, Africa - Climate - ie. hot summer kills TGE and B hyodysenteriae - cold winter ensures confinement rearing - we do not have problems with feral pigs ** New pigs arriving in a herd are the most common source of disease: 1. Buy pigs from 1 source w. known health status 2. Buy from herd with good biosecurity 3. Quarantine new boars/gilts for at least 60 days – test for disease, vaccinate, expose to sentinel pigs 4. Reduce the # of new pigs brought into herd ~ AI most common way (although semen can be a source of disease too) 5. Build new barns away from other herds – 3km   Control People Movement ~ Signage, used to help control pathogen entry ACCESS ZONES  –     Controlled Access Zone – CAZ •     - pig farm yard - buildings and driveway •     - access limited •   ~ guest parking and smaller deliveries outside CAZ  –     Restricted Access Zone - where pigs are housed •       - defined entry protocol ▯~ ex. provide clothing to guests, can’t enter if sick etc.▯ •     * zones used to decrease risk of pathogens coming in Biosecurity: PEOPLE 1. Restricted access to barn – signs, lock doors 2. Wash hands or shower 3. Change from street clothes into barn boots and coveralls Biosecurity: VEHICLES Vehicles can be contaminated by pig manure from other farms – pig transport, feed, dead-stock etc. 1. Ensure trucks that have been to other farms have been cleaned 2. Don’t allow vehicles near barn ▯CAZ- controlled access zone) 3. Have dead-stock pick-up at end of lane (~dead stock trucks are pathogen factories) ~ use old school busses to transport piglets - Truck Wash Bays (must clean all before going to a new farm, pressure wash and make sure they dry) find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Biosecurity: DEADSTOCK “Piglet Processing” - some producers have own composter – add shavings and looks like soil in end, put onto own fields Biosecurity: OTHER ANIMALS • Can bring new disease into barn or spread disease through barn • 1. No cats/dogs/other species in barn (cats only if keep them from exiting barn, hard to do) 2. Rodent control program 3. Screens to keep birds out • Why such a strong focus on Biosecurity??? • Economics – cheaper to keep diseases out than deal w. them once their in • Production – optimize it Well-being of animals – keep healthy, better for animal Trade pork internationally – want to maintain healthy national herd that we have and keep industry viable ~ breach of biosecurity can have devastating effects on animals and our reputation as well Why does it seem so much more ▯important▯ in the Swine industry?? Zoonotic potential Important Commodity (Product) House pigs in large populations – have way more to loose w. large pop Emerging diseases w. in swine industry (problematic) – not immune to new disease outbreaks Nursing piglet production targets NURSING PIGLET HEALTH Parameter Target Piglet Health: ▯PIGLET PROCESSING▯ IRON ADMINISTRATION Birth weight 1.5kg - usually injected, sometimes orally Pre‐weaning mortality <10% (farm level target) - prevents anemia (born w. low blood iron, not well absorbed when ingested) Weaning age  Variable 17‐28 days of age Average 21 days of age CLIP NEEDLE TEETH Weaning weight >5 kg  - sharp teeth used when fighting for teat - prevents injury/disease (ie. Greasy pig disease) CASTRATE MALES – prevents boar taint DOCK TAILS – prevents tail biting (occurs w. stress, normal as they are curious, provide environmental enrichment to avoid) Piglet Health: PRE-WEANING MORTALITY ~ target should be < 10% MAJOR CAUSES - Management  Crushing (laid on), Chilling, Starvation - Disease  Diarrhea Piglet Health: CRUSHING Prevention – use farrowing crates, non-slip flooring under sow What other management technique could be used to reduce mortality due to crushing? Check pigs more often Piglet Health: CHILLING • - provide supplemental heat, creep area ▯don’t want to heat whole room bc want to keep sows happy too▯ - mats in crates (“laid on”) - warm up cold piglets – dry them, warming box *Piglets ~1.5 kg at birth – no fat stores Piglet Health: STARVATION … Prevention • – making sure small/weak-born piglets are nursing - split-suckle – remove large pigs for short period so small pigs can nurse - Cross-fostering – ensures enough teats for # of piglets, sick sow or sow not milking well What is a disadvantage to cross fostering? Spread disease, sow knows piglets – could be aggressive *~ farrowing takes approx. 15 min per piglet Piglet Health: DIARRHEA (4 different infectious causes of diarrhea) 1. Colibacillosis 2. Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE) 3. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) 4. Coccidiosis Diarrhea due to various agents begins at different time in the pig’s life  Timing of clinical signs helps to determine the causal agent - Escherichia coli (colibacillosis) (<12hrs) - TGE virus, PED virus (2 days) - Isospora suis (coccidiosis) (5 day but could be 1-3 weeks ~ due to parasite life cycle) find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Colibacillosis (disease): Agent E. Coli (Escherichia coli) - E. coli are normal inhabitants of GIT - Pathogenic and Non-pathogen E. coli, Pathogenic E. coli must be present (Enterotoxigenic E. coli = ETEC) PATHOGENESIS - fecal – oral route - attachment to villi of SI (villi receptors – genetic) the piglet. ProducesFaSow age/health CareleDirty farrowing cratesrHealth: - colonization of villi of SI gut - bacteria produce enterotoxins lumen “pili” - excess fluid secretion into lumen a that allow bacteria to attach to gut wall (villi) toxin that causes Colibacillosis CLINICAL SIGNS E. coli Diarrhea - watery to creamy diarrhea that can begin w. hours of birth (<12hrs of age) excess - piglets become dehydrated and weak (lethargy) - more common in gilt litters (whose dam is gilt – 1 timer vs. a sow)st secretion - morbidity and mortality rates can be high (at litter level) of fluid into Nursing abImilimtyPiglet ageunseticss: of CONTROL Maximize lactogenic immunity - vaccinate sow prior to farrowing - vaccinate gilts twice and sows once - commercial (killed) bacterin (against particular strain) - autogenous vaccine (specific to bacteria on farm, lab makes it herd specific) - reduce culling rates of sows ~ don’t want a herd full of gilts, see more common illness w. gilts – harder time building up immunity * Lactogenic antibodies very important – Agalactica (not letting milk down) can lead to E. Coli Diarrhea - typically entire litter is affected - in day-old pigs – feces may be clear (later feces is the colour of ingested feed ~ diarrhea changes color based on diet) CONT. CONTROL Minimize Challenge - all in/all out farrowing rooms - clean and disinfect btw groups - perforated floors Keep Piglets Warm- chilling reduces gut mobility, decrease suckling Minimize Transmission - wash hands after handling piglets w. diarrhea – handle litter w. diarrhea last • • • Agent Fa•tors: • Environmental Factors: Highly conStuargvioivuess in cold enviroSeasonty Piglet Health: TGE Piglet Health: TGE – TRANSMISSIBLE GASTROENTERITIS Agent = Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEv) a coronavirus winter - heat liable (room temperature) - very stable when frozen - seasonal disease (**highest incidence in the winter months) TGE TGE – PATHOGENESIS - fecal – oral (or nasal) route - severe villous atrophy in neonates neonatpersotectismmu•Aftyl neonatsee•vere inHost Factors: actogenfects all Age - enterocyte growth from base of crypt to tips of villi more - speed of regeneration varies with age ages - neonate ~ 3 weeks (SLOW) - adult ~3 days (not as severe in adults) - villous atrophy more severe in neonates ▯takes 3 wks to replace, piglets can’t recover fast enough▯ TGE – CLINICAL SIGNS - vomiting and watery diarrhea (~ vomiting is a red flag for any coronavirus) - all ages of pig affected (- younger = more severe) - high mortality in young piglets (~ near 100%), see diarrhea start at 2 days of age - all piglets born over the next 6 weeks will die (bc virus is in barn, loose 6 wks of production, will eutha) - rapid spread through the herd - vomiting, especially suckling pigs – curds of milk (pigs keep nursing, illness extremely acute) CONTROL – TGE - Expose all animals (as fast as can) - feedback program (~ give animals antigen, lots in manure, use manure as oral poop shake vx w. milk replacer) - especially pregnant sows (no effective vx for this, want them to develop immunity so use manure vx) ~ whole herd getting sick at the same time from live vaccine manure shake - Institute strict biosecurity find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com - Close herd (buy 6 months of replacement gilts and boars ~ no new comers for 6 mths, stop supplying a host for the agent) - Clean and disinfect barn – monitor sows for sero-conversion ~ take a blood sample to mea
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