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POPM 4230 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Gestation Crate, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli, Pathogenic Escherichia Coli

Population Medicine
Course Code
POPM 4230
Terri O' Sullivan
Study Guide

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Swine Industry Production Systems and Biosecurity
World Meat Consumption
- 1.3 Billion pigs marketed world-wide each year
- 43% of all meat consumed is pork
- 103 Million tonnes of pork produced each year
- As world pop expands, so does pop of pigs
- As economies of developing countries increase pork consumption increases
Major Swine Provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba
Pork = an economically important agricultural export commodity for the country
- 2010: Canada exported $2.77 billion of pork to over 130 countries (over 3 billion now)
- 2010: 22.2 million head of swine produced
- 2010: Canada exported $1.42 billion of beef to over 70 countries
Pork export = 3rd highest farm gate income behind wheat and canola
Canada is the #1 exporter of live swine
~ 6 million live pigs exported per year most to the USA (#2 China/Japan/Russia)
- 54% early weaned or feeder pigs
- 43% market weight pigs and
- 3% as sows and boars
** health of Canadian pig herd is important helps us keep good relationship w. export market
Pigs in North America
- Canada markets >20 million pigs
- 100,000 pet pigs in North America
- Pigs = models for human medical research
- Pigs = important source for human organ transplant
- Canadian QA programs 1998
- Animal Care Assurance program Jan 2012 (animal welfare)
- 98% participation voluntary
- validators (vets serve as validators)
- Recommendations and Standards
~ want to be able to tell trade partners about our good biosecurity standards
CODE OF PRACTICE (new version released 2014)
- # of herds is decreasing
- ONT pig farm size increasing production increasing
- 97% of farms are family owned
- land-based farms for crop production (corn + soybeans) and nutrient management (manure used to fertilize crops)
- contributed over $4 million to provincial economy
- > 27,000 jobs (2009)
- approx. 5 million hogs marketed per year (2010)
Marketing System
- pigs sold through a marketing board no longer mandatory
- bonus for lean, well-muscled pigs (index)
- marketed at 105-115 kg live weight
- no boar meat sold in Canada boar taint = hormones make meat smell, taste bad
- price paid for a specific pig fluctuates based on economic demand
~ no Quota like dairy and poultry
Swine Economics
FIXED COSTS OF PRODUCTION = barn, labor, utilities
= feed costs are #1 expense, fluctuates w. cost of corn, # of pigs in barn (hog price/market, genetics, nutrition, animal health)
Why does the price of a market pig fluctuate?
Supply and Demand
- export markets
- lean hog features price discovery (Chicago Merchantile Exchange)
- contract (lock in at a certain price)
USD/CAD Exchange Rate - USD historically stronger than CAD
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** Hampshire breed (belt) = good growth rates and lean carcass
**Duroc (red/brown) = good growth rates, lean carcass yield
**Lacombe(Landrase?) (big muma) = good to cross w., litter size, milk yield, good mothers
** Yorkshire (stiff ears) = large frame, good growing pigs, good milk producers and mothers
FARROW TO FINISH = +/- raise own replacement gilts (gilts = never had a baby)
WEANER PRODUCERS = sell pigs at 20-25 kg
GROW-FINISH OPERATION = buy 20-25kg pigs and raise to market age
BREEDING STOCK SUPPLIERS = sell gilts and boars to others, supply boars to AI stud, most pigs still go for market hogs
SEW (SEGREGATED EARLY WEANING) or Multi-site production (multiple sow herds send pigs to one nursery)
Production Phase: BREEDING
- sows in individual stall or group pens stay here until confirmed pregnant
- boars in individual stalls or pens
- Artificial insemination common
- natural breeding 1 boar/20 sow
Production Phase: GESTATION
- sows housed in individual stalls or group pens
- gestation length ~ 115days (3 months, 3 weeks, 3 days)
- combination of stalls and pens
PROS and CONS of Stalls and Pens
- monitor and manage at individual level (monitor eating, BCS)
- more humane
- prevent injuries
- limited to stall, cannot express natural behaviour
- since cannot express this more bar biting etc. can happen
- pigs social animals, like doing exploratory behaviour and exhibit natural behaviours in this way
- groups w. in bigger groups when provide little dividers
- now know how to better prevent fighting and hierarchy from occurring
~ frequent feeding, multiple location w. in pen
- cannot monitor individuals or who’s eating what
- sows vicious and fight (even to death)
- more likely to get injured from another sow and in general bc more room to move around
** group housing offered to sows after so many days of gestation want to limit any pregnancy loss and stress
Production Phase: FARROWING
- sows farrow (give birth) in crates
- piglets weaned at 14-28 days old (~21 days of age in ONT)
~ crates washed before new sows move in (all in/all out)
FARROWING CRATES = help protect piglets from crushing, sow lies down slowly and pig have time to move out of sows way
pen does not prevent flopping, slows down descent, pigs crushed to death when sow lies, can loose half litter in 1 day
- allow room to dry after disinfecting/washing
- all piglets come in at once and leave at once decrease spread of disease from batch to batch
- minimize frequency of mixing pigs (can cause stress and trigger more disease)
- older pigs/kept pigs are a source of potential pathogens for young pigs w.out fully developed immune systems
If have continuous flow on a farrow to finish farm, where would this be?
~ in gestation and finisher areas, older pigs more immune to different things, Ideally want all in all out though
ALL IN/ALL OUT vs. CONTINUOUS FLOW terms applied to farrowing, nursery, and finishing stages
Continuous Flow
Room/Barn filled all at once
New pigs constantly moved into room/barn
Room/Barn completely emptied and cleaned before new pigs enter
Room/Barn NEVER completely empty
Decreased disease spread
More risk of disease
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Production Phase: NURSERY
- move in at ~ 3 weeks old and 5 kg
- housed in groups males and females
- remain here for ~7wks
- move out at ~10 weeks old and 25 kg
Production Phase: FINISHING
- housed in groups
- remain here until reach market weight ~ 110 kg
- spend 100-120 days in finishing barn
- pigs are ~ 6 months old when reach market weight
* pink arrows = sows
* red arrows = piglets
~ breeding area should be far from nursery
- different sites geographically (could be across the road, in a diff province)
- logistically, not big enough farm
- allows for specialization (sows vs. piglet management)
- from disease standpoint- gets nursery pigs away from other pigs
- cheaper to transport the little guys bc don’t take up as much room
~ do transport hogs just not as much, as far
= refers to the steps taken to protect the pig farm from entry of disease agents viral , bacterial, fungal, parasitic
~PEDV = Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus
- farms separated geographically
- country separated from Europe, Mexico, Africa
- Climate
- ie. hot summer kills TGE and B hyodysenteriae
- cold winter ensures confinement rearing
- we do not have problems with feral pigs
** New pigs arriving in a herd are the most common source of disease:
1. Buy pigs from 1 source w. known health status
2. Buy from herd with good biosecurity
3. Quarantine new boars/gilts for at least 60 days test for disease, vaccinate, expose to sentinel pigs
4. Reduce the # of new pigs brought into herd ~ AI most common way (although semen can be a source of disease too)
5. Build new barns away from other herds 3km
Control People Movement ~ Signage, used to help control pathogen entry
Controlled Access Zone CAZ
- pig farm yard
- buildings and driveway
- access limited
~ guest parking and smaller deliveries outside CAZ
Restricted Access Zone
- where pigs are housed
- defined entry protocol ~ ex. provide clothing to guests, can’t enter if sick etc.
* zones used to decrease risk of pathogens coming in
Biosecurity: PEOPLE
1. Restricted access to barn signs, lock doors
2. Wash hands or shower
3. Change from street clothes into barn boots and coveralls
Biosecurity: VEHICLES
Vehicles can be contaminated by pig manure from other farms pig transport, feed, dead-stock etc.
1. Ensure trucks that have been to other farms have been cleaned
2. Don’t allow vehicles near barn CAZ- controlled access zone)
3. Have dead-stock pick-up at end of lane (~dead stock trucks are pathogen factories)
~ use old school busses to transport piglets
- Truck Wash Bays (must clean all before going to a new farm, pressure wash and make sure they dry)
 
Nursery Finishing
Breeding Gestation
All production
stages on the
same site
‐ 
 
‐ ‐
Breeding Gestation Farrowing
Production stages
on different sites
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