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Study Guide

[POPM 4230] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 23 pages long Study Guide!

23 Pages
89 Views
Fall 2016

Department
Population Medicine
Course Code
POPM 4230
Professor
Terri O' Sullivan
Study Guide
Midterm

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UofG
POPM 4230
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
POPM*4230 ANIMAL HEALTH
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF DISEASE
WHAT IS HEALTH?
- Inconsistent definitions (highly varied)
o Absence of disease (simple)
o Yes/no (dichotomous)
o Gaps False Negative Tests (test is negative but the disease is present)
The a e diagose disease ist pefet
- Normality
o Normal = healthy
o Abnormal = diseased
o Gaps Genetic diseases (phenotypically normal or diseased but opposite genetically)
- Homeostasis
o Mid ad od i hao ith eioet
o Gaps Where do we stop??
- WHO Definition (human)
o Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the
absence of disease or infirmity
o Health is more than just the absence of disease
- With livestock we also need to reference:
o WELFARE
Sansbury positie health
The provision of a complete diet, environment optial fo the aials phsiologial
eeds, ofotale to the aials seses, i hih the aial is seue ad fee fo
fear, and with no undue challenge by pathogenic microogaiss o pedatos
o PRODUCTION
Given proper nutrition and environment should reach maximum/optimum production
o REPRODUCTION
Given proper nutrition and environment should reach maximum/optimum
reproduction
If not, are they unhealthy? Yes and No unhealthy because limiting condition of
disease ut if just the potetial to eet the tagets is ot et pehaps the aet
unhealthy just unproductive
- Obtaining a clear definition everyone agrees upon is difficult
- Health spectrum is more than just the absence of disease
o Susceptible Resistant
WHAT IS DISEASE?
- Traditionally defined as a finite abnormality of structure or function with an identifiable pathological
basis and recognizable clinical signs
o Clinical Disease overt, visible signs
Examples: exudative present, swelling, heat, redness, weight loss
- Now broadened to include:
o Sub-clinical disease
Not visible, but measurable in some way
Examples: fever, blood test, somatic cell count
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
o Sub-optimal production
Below what is expected for that breed, genetic line, industry
There is a strong relationship between disease management and production
management (nutrition and/or health problems are major factors)
o Welfare
In livestock production systems welfare is often evaluated in the context of five
freedoms:
1. Freedom from hunger and thirst
2. Freedom from discomfort
3. Freedom from pain, injury and disease
4. Freedom to express normal behavior
5. Freedom from fear and distress
Animal with a disease means that their welfare is compromised
- Examples of animal disease
o Rabies, mad cow, parvovirus (dogs, pigs), distemper, Lyme disease, avian influenza
CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASE (DAMNIT System)
- DEGENERATIVE
o Structure is altered by age, use or disuse, or biochemical changes
o Examples: arthritis, DJD
- ANOMALOUS
o Abnormal structure or function ogeital peset at ith
o May be genetic
Example: hemophilia, baldy calf
o May be developmental accident
Examples: cleft palate, atresia ani
- METABOLIC
o Due to nutrition, toxins or hormonal activity that alters normal metabolism
o Examples: milk fever, ketosis
- NEOPLASTIC (Cancer)
o Abnormal growth of cells at the expense of normal tissue structure and function
o Examples: lymphosarcoma, cancer eye
- INFECTIOUS
o Caused by microorganisms that invade the body and damage normal structure and function
o A pathogen
o Example: mycoplasma hyopneumonia (bacteria) causing pneumonia in pigs
- TRAUMATIC (TOXIC)
o Mechanical injury
o Examples: broken bone, rupture muscle
DISEASE TERMINOLOGY
- ETIOLOGY
o The study of the causes of disease
o Etiologi aget = ausatie aget of disease /=/ the ause
- PATHOGENESIS
o The development of disease
o The process by which a pathogen produces disease
- PATHOGEN
o Any disease-producing microorganism or material
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
[POPM 4230] Comprehensive Midterm Exam guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at oneclass.com POPM*4230 – ANIMAL HEALTH GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF DISEASE WHAT IS HEALTH? - Inconsistent definitions (highly varied) o Absence of disease (simple) o Yes/no (dichotomous) o Gaps  False Negative Tests (test is negative but the disease is present)  The ▯a▯ ▯e diag▯ose disease is▯▯t pe▯fe▯t - Normality o Normal = healthy o Abnormal = diseased o Gaps  Genetic diseases (phenotypically normal or diseased but opposite genetically) - Homeostasis o ▯Mi▯d a▯d ▯od▯ i▯ ha▯▯o▯▯ ▯ith e▯▯i▯o▯▯e▯t▯ o Gaps  Where do we stop?? - WHO Definition (human) o Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity o Health is more than just the absence of disease - With livestock we also need to reference: o WELFARE  Sansbury – ▯positi▯e health▯  ▯The provision of a complete diet, environment opti▯al fo▯ the a▯i▯al▯s ph▯siologi▯al ▯eeds, ▯o▯fo▯ta▯le to the a▯i▯al▯s se▯ses, i▯ ▯hi▯h the a▯i▯al is se▯u▯e a▯d f▯ee f▯o▯ fear, and with no undue challenge by pathogenic microo▯ga▯is▯s o▯ p▯edato▯s▯ o PRODUCTION  Given proper nutrition and environment should reach maximum/optimum production o REPRODUCTION  Given proper nutrition and environment should reach maximum/optimum reproduction  If not, are they unhealthy? Yes and No  unhealthy because limiting condition of disease ▯ut if just the pote▯tial to ▯eet the ta▯gets is ▯ot ▯et pe▯haps the▯ a▯e▯▯t unhealthy just unproductive - Obtaining a clear definition everyone agrees upon is difficult - Health spectrum is more than just the absence of disease o Susceptible   Resistant WHAT IS DISEASE? - Traditionally defined as a finite abnormality of structure or function with an identifiable pathological basis and recognizable clinical signs o Clinical Disease  overt, visible signs  Examples: exudative present, swelling, heat, redness, weight loss - Now broadened to include: o Sub-clinical disease  Not visible, but measurable in some way  Examples: fever, blood test, somatic cell count find more resources at oneclass.com
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