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[POPM 4230] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 23 pages long Study Guide!

23 pages117 viewsFall 2016

Department
Population Medicine
Course Code
POPM 4230
Professor
Terri O' Sullivan
Study Guide
Midterm

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UofG
POPM 4230
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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POPM*4230 ANIMAL HEALTH
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF DISEASE
WHAT IS HEALTH?
- Inconsistent definitions (highly varied)
o Absence of disease (simple)
o Yes/no (dichotomous)
o Gaps False Negative Tests (test is negative but the disease is present)
The a e diagose disease ist pefet
- Normality
o Normal = healthy
o Abnormal = diseased
o Gaps Genetic diseases (phenotypically normal or diseased but opposite genetically)
- Homeostasis
o Mid ad od i hao ith eioet
o Gaps Where do we stop??
- WHO Definition (human)
o Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the
absence of disease or infirmity
o Health is more than just the absence of disease
- With livestock we also need to reference:
o WELFARE
Sansbury positie health
The provision of a complete diet, environment optial fo the aials phsiologial
eeds, ofotale to the aials seses, i hih the aial is seue ad fee fo
fear, and with no undue challenge by pathogenic microogaiss o pedatos
o PRODUCTION
Given proper nutrition and environment should reach maximum/optimum production
o REPRODUCTION
Given proper nutrition and environment should reach maximum/optimum
reproduction
If not, are they unhealthy? Yes and No unhealthy because limiting condition of
disease ut if just the potetial to eet the tagets is ot et pehaps the aet
unhealthy just unproductive
- Obtaining a clear definition everyone agrees upon is difficult
- Health spectrum is more than just the absence of disease
o Susceptible Resistant
WHAT IS DISEASE?
- Traditionally defined as a finite abnormality of structure or function with an identifiable pathological
basis and recognizable clinical signs
o Clinical Disease overt, visible signs
Examples: exudative present, swelling, heat, redness, weight loss
- Now broadened to include:
o Sub-clinical disease
Not visible, but measurable in some way
Examples: fever, blood test, somatic cell count
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o Sub-optimal production
Below what is expected for that breed, genetic line, industry
There is a strong relationship between disease management and production
management (nutrition and/or health problems are major factors)
o Welfare
In livestock production systems welfare is often evaluated in the context of five
freedoms:
1. Freedom from hunger and thirst
2. Freedom from discomfort
3. Freedom from pain, injury and disease
4. Freedom to express normal behavior
5. Freedom from fear and distress
Animal with a disease means that their welfare is compromised
- Examples of animal disease
o Rabies, mad cow, parvovirus (dogs, pigs), distemper, Lyme disease, avian influenza
CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASE (DAMNIT System)
- DEGENERATIVE
o Structure is altered by age, use or disuse, or biochemical changes
o Examples: arthritis, DJD
- ANOMALOUS
o Abnormal structure or function ogeital peset at ith
o May be genetic
Example: hemophilia, baldy calf
o May be developmental accident
Examples: cleft palate, atresia ani
- METABOLIC
o Due to nutrition, toxins or hormonal activity that alters normal metabolism
o Examples: milk fever, ketosis
- NEOPLASTIC (Cancer)
o Abnormal growth of cells at the expense of normal tissue structure and function
o Examples: lymphosarcoma, cancer eye
- INFECTIOUS
o Caused by microorganisms that invade the body and damage normal structure and function
o A pathogen
o Example: mycoplasma hyopneumonia (bacteria) causing pneumonia in pigs
- TRAUMATIC (TOXIC)
o Mechanical injury
o Examples: broken bone, rupture muscle
DISEASE TERMINOLOGY
- ETIOLOGY
o The study of the causes of disease
o Etiologi aget = ausatie aget of disease /=/ the ause
- PATHOGENESIS
o The development of disease
o The process by which a pathogen produces disease
- PATHOGEN
o Any disease-producing microorganism or material
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