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POPM 4230 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Uterine Artery, Amniotic Sac, Vaginitis

20 pages63 viewsFall 2015

Department
Population Medicine
Course Code
POPM 4230
Professor
Cathy Bauman
Study Guide
Midterm

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POPM 4230 Animal Health
Midterm II
Lecture 09: Reproductive Health & Udder Health
Freemartin: heifer is born co-twin to a male, 90% are freemartins (chimera XX/XY)
-Female sex characteristics androgenized, abnormal external and/or internal genitalia
-95% are sterile
-No affect on male twin
Lactation / gestation periods are influenced by
breed
-Let them dry up to build up the udder,
nutritional status allow rest time
-If not given dry period, colostrum will not
have as many Ab, protein, etc.
Parturition: time from when they start to show signs
that they are going to calf to time there is a calf on ground
-Time to complete = heifer 2-4h, cow 20min-2h
-Ligaments are first relaxing during first birth with a heifer (takes longer)
-Stage I: relaxation of the pelvic ligaments (tail head “up”)
oMaking room for calf to come through birth canal
oRelaxation & dilation of the cervix
oFetus changes position
oPlacental membranes push against cervix by rhythmic contractions of the uterus
oCan take 2-3 days for this stage to complete to Stage II
-Stage II: allantois ruptures, amniotic sac ruptures, fetus is expelled from uterus by abdominal
contractions, uterine contractions & fetal movement
-Stage III: expulsion of fetal membranes (< 12h is normal), uterine involution (< 28d)
Calving: presentation, position, posture (hooves & head first)
Dystocia: difficult birth
-Failure of the cervix to dilate common in sheep, cattle if fetus is malpositioned or uterus torsed
-Obstruction of vagina too much pelvic fat in heifers
-Failure of vulva or vagina to dilate (more common in heifers)
-Uterine torsion = uterus twists around long axis
-Uterine inertia = milk fever or exhaustion (need minerals, i.e. Ca, P, etc., for muscle tension to push)
-Maternal-fetal disproportion = fetus is too large for pelvis
oWant to breed heifer to bull that has good calving offspring (i.e. small shoulders)
-Abnormal presentation, position, posture; twins
-Malformed fetus (shistosomus reflexus where the belly wall does not close)
Use chains to pull legs out because of slipperiness after membranes have ruptured
-Do not want to use full force, some situations need C sections
-If pasterns are > 15 cm past vulva, then shoulders are clearing birth canal
-If presentation is okay, can leave (cows = 30min-1 h, heifers = 1-2h)
-Maximum force = 2 people’s arms
-Keep clean, use lots of lube, follow natural downward arc in delivery, rotate calf during delivery
Consequences of dystocia
-Death of fetus
-Vaginal tears, uterine tear
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-Obturator nerve paralysis (calving too tight, damages pelvic nerves of cow)
-Sciatic nerve paralysis (down too long), muscle damage due to being down
Long-term issues to dystocia
-Prolapsed uterus (after difficult calving or with milk fever, rupture uterine arteries)
-Fracture of ribs or long bones of calf
-Stillbirth
Retained placenta (RP): failure to expel fetal membranes by 24h post-calving
-Risk factors: dystocia, twins, abortion, milk fever, Caesarian section, induced delivery
-Immune function is greatly reduced in cows with RP
-RP is a major risk factor for subsequent metritis (serious systemic illness) and/or endometritis (chronic
localized inflammation with reduced fertility)
-Impact of RP depends on ability of cow’s immune system to deal with it
Normal postpartum involution
-Process of restoration of reproductive tract to ability to
support subsequent pregnancy
-Shrinkage & repair of uterus & cervix
-Lochia = sloughing of endometrium
-Clearance of bacterial contamination within 3wks
-Ideally: gross – 21d, histologic – 40d
-Restoration occurs in parallel with return to cyclicity
(resumption of estrous cycles)
-“Voluntary waiting period” (VWP) = ~50 days in milk (DIM)
Postpartum anestrus: several recent studies indicate that 20-25% of dairy cows may not cyclic by 60 DIM
-May be pronounced in 1st lactation
-Risk factors relate largely to cow’s health during this transition period – nutrition (negative energy
balance – NEB), body condition score (BCS) & underlying metabolic disease (e.g. ketosis & displaced
abomasum)
-Sometimes difficult to identify affected individuals
Postpartum uterine disease
-Metritis: acute, bacterial uterine infection (< 10
DIM)
oSystemic signs: T > 39.5, off feed, toxemia
oCow is systemically ill (fever, off feed)
oMay or may not also have RP
oUterine discharge is watery, red-brown,
foul smelling (E. coli & anaerobic bacteria)
oNormal discharge is thick, often red (lochia)
oLargely a problem of postpartum immune function
oTreatment: systemic antibiotics
oEconomic loss due to antibiotic treatment, culling & death, milk loss, reproduction (highest costs
are antibiotic & reproduction)
-Endometritis: infection/inflammation of uterus
oNo systemic signs (> 21 DIM), clinical signs is purulent vaginal discharge (15-20%), cytological
(subclinical) endometritis (15-20%)
oLocalized inflammation of the uterus
oCharacterized by delayed involution – disease only exists if the process is impaired or
prolonged
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oDevelopment depends on the immune response of the cow
oTreatment is intrauterine (IU) antibiotic 4-6 weeks post-partum
oEconomic impact of endometritis is reproductive inefficiency (additional days open, conceive
later, could fail to become pregnant, may have to cull (1.2-1.7× risk), increased early pregnancy
losses possible) & milk discard due to antibiotics
-Physiology vs. pathology almost all cows have bacterial contamination of the uterus after calving
oSame immune system mediators appear to be involved in healthy & affected cows (TLR4, IL-1,
IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF )α
oDifference lies in magnitude, regulation, duration & effectiveness of the response
-Cystic ovarian condition: ovarian follicle that fails to ovulate or regress & grows to abnormal size (>
2.5cm diameter) – cyst
oTraditionally thought that cysts were persistent & stopped the estrus cycle, but may impair
reproduction in the short-term
oOver-diagnosed & generally overrated as a problem
oTreatment: induce luteinizing hormone (LH) surge (Ovsynch) ± supplemental progesterone
For a profitable reproductive management, need estrus detection, intensity, accuracy, systematic breeding
management program while monitoring / treating dystocia, RP, abortion & uterine disease
Abortion: premature expulsion from the uterus of the embryo or non-viable fetus
-Etiology: impairment of the function of the placenta, damage to fetus (non-infectious or infectious – non-
contagious or contagious)
-Non-infectious abortion: early embryonic loss (15-25% of pregnancies diagnosed at 28d gestation are
lost by 60d), twins, heat stress, fetal genetic anomalies, iatrogenic (accidental prostaglandin hormone
administered)
-Infectious non-contagious abortion: disease agent may be introduced by circulation or up repro tract
oSporadic abortion (expected incidence 3-5%) - infectious, does not represent danger to herd
Fungal (through bloodstream) or opportunistic bacteria (other maternal disease,
inflammatory response may cause abortion, e.g. E. coli mastitis)
-Infectious contagious abortion: agents are contagious & have predilection for causing abortion (i.e.
infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine virus diarrhea, leptospirosis, neospora)
oReproductive manifestations of a BVD
Conception decreases or EED before 42d
Create a persistently infected calf (PI)
Abortion of congenital anomalies at 125-170d
No fetal harm, born seropositive between 170d-280d
oNeospora caninum is a coccidian parasite that infects cattle, dogs
Totally subclinical in infected adults & infection is lifelong
Manifestation is abortion (4-7 months); if fetus is not aborted, calf likely to be infected
Cattle that aborts is likely to do so again
No effective treatment, eventual culling of cows that have aborted due to Neospora
Seropositive cows that have not aborted are not bred as herd replacement source
Life cycle of N. caninum
Dog is definitive host, tissue cysts are ingested by dog, unsporulated oocysts are
passed in feces
Oocysts in food, water, soil; ingested by intermediate hosts (cattle, sheep, etc.)
Tissue cysts in intermediate hosts, tissue cysts ingested by dog
Sporulated oocysts can also contaminate food & water, eaten by cow &
tachzoites are transmitted through placenta, infecting the fetus
Neospora abortion patterns
Endemic Epidemic
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