Study Guides (248,122)
Canada (121,330)
Psychology (952)
PSYC 1000 (182)

Intro to Psych Chapter 2

11 Pages
59 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1000
Professor
Peter Pada
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 2: Research Methods in Psychology Def’ns Theory- an organized set of concepts that explains a phenomenon or set of phenomena Determinism- the doctrine that all events- physical, behavioural, and mental-are determined by specific causal factors that are potentially knowable Hypothesis- A tentative and testable explanation of the relationship betwn two or more events or variables; often stated as a prediction that a certain outcome will result from specific condition Martin Seligman Positive Psychology - Training soldiers to become resilient before war and helping them after war - That we do have control over our self - Strength based psychology What do Psychology do? - Engage in psychological inquiry o Want questions that they want answer - Formulate Questions to be research - Conduct various forms of research - Apply psychological Principles o Treating different patients differently Psychologists in work setting Figure 1.2 Spending most of their time in Independent practice, academic settings, hospital and clincs(1 to 3 )d Speciality areas of psychology 1 clinical psychology 2 Counselling psychology Chapter 2: Basic Concepts of Research  Scientific Method  Defn involves a set of procedures used for gathering and interpreting objective information  an organized way of using experience and testing ideas to increase knowledge  3 Goals – Describe, Explain/Understand, Predict  follows strict rules  Intensity and duration in research (all numbers based)  it’s empirical  it’s systematic  it’s often rigorous  What is the scientific method?  Limits sources of error  Always limitations in research  Yield dependable generalization  Draw conclusions with maximum objectivity  What are the steps in the scientific method?(look at figure 2.1)  Initial observation or question  Person working in psychology has to want answers  Why groups act in certain ways  Form a hypothesis  Design the study  Analyze the data and draw conclusions  Statistics and correlations  Report the findings  Consider open questions  Act on open questions Theories  A theory is … o An organized set of concepts that explains a phenomenon or set of phenomena o Is a tentative explanation of fact and relationships that underlie observed events( is tentative until it is resreached)  Based on the concept of determinism o Defn That all events are based on specific causual factors (one variable can lead to effect another variable) o limited to the individuals environment or within the person.  Psychologists use theories to formulate new research questions o Based on the idea that lawful patterns of relationships can be explained by specific causal factors Hypothesis  A hypothesis is … o A tentative and testable statement about the relationship between the causes and consequences of behavior o Can have one or more hypothesis  Often involve “if-then” predictions o E.g., IF children view a lot of violence on television, THEN they will engage in more aggressive acts towards peers  ISSUES: the use of a lot: very vague Violence : Def’n and degree (punching, poking) Children (AGES)Aggressive (base-line) and meaning of peer  Research is conducted to verify the prediction by using the scientific method What is the Scientific Method?  The scientific method involves a set of procedures used for gathering and interpreting objective information o Limit sources of error o Yield dependable generalizations o Draw conclusions with maximum objectivity Research Challenge  When comparing people and groups we want to look at significant differences  Challenges to objectivity are an important consideration when conducting and evaluating research o Observer bias(people who in charge of collecting the data) = distortion of evidence because of the personal motives and expectations of the viewer  Sometime people will consciously and unconsciously to change data to their advantage o Our biases act as filters for information Remedies for Biases  There are two main techniques that minimize observer bias: o Standardization (procedure that everyone is following through)  Using uniform and consistent procedures in all phases of data collection  Instruction must be the same for all o Operational definitions (must be able to defn what we are studying)(both researcher and participant)  Defining a concept in terms of the specific operations or procedures used to measure it  Standardizes the meaning of concepts  Applies to all variables in a study Formal Experiments  Experimental and control groups o Experimental participants partake in the treatment; control groups do not.  Treatment: Medications, Coffee (some form a manipulation) o All other conditions are held constant for both groups. Research Variables  There are two main types of variables (factors that vary in amount or kind) o Independent Variable (IV)  A factor that is manipulated by the researcher  Changes to the variable and has impact of the dependent variable  The causal part of the relationship o Dependent Variable (DV)  A factor that the experimenter measures to determine the impact of the IV  The outcome  The effect part of the relationship  No limits on the amount of variable on both part but chances of error will increase o But must have at least one on each part Experimental Methods  Procedures used to make strong causal claims about the impact of the IV (manipulated) on the DV (measured) o While experiments allow for causal statements, alternative explanations may exist o What factors are associated with alternative explanations? Alternative explanations (in research)  Confounding variables(factors or variables) that may influence the interpretation of the results o A variable other than what the experimenter purposely introduced that may change a participant’s behavior o Adds confusion and puts interpretation of data at risk (things that the researcher cant control) o E.g of Confounding Variables; expresso test: Sleep, Amount of study) Additional Confounds  Expectancy effects: o Occur when a researcher subtly communicates to participants the behaviors that he or she expects to find, producing the desired reaction o Often unintentional o Can trigger desired response (rather than IV)  Placebo effect: o Occurs when the experimental participants change their behavior in the absence of any kind of experimental manipulation  E.g. Sugar Pills that dissolves
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 1000

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit