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PSYC 1000
Hank Davis

Chapter Ten Motivation and Emotion Perspectives on Motivation Motivation is a process that influences the direction, vigour, and persistence of behaviour. Evolutionary psychologists propose that in our ancestral past, motivational tendencies that had adaptive significance were more likely to be passed from one generation to the next, eventually evolving into genetically based predispositions to act in certain ways. Homeostatic models view motivation as an attempt to maintain equilibrium in bodily systems. Drive theories propose that tissue deficits create drives, such as hunger, that motivate or ―push‖ an organism from within to reduce the deficit and restore homeostasis. Incentive theories emphasize the role of environmental factors that ―pull‖ people toward a goal. The cognitive expectancy X value theory explains why the same incentive may motivate some people, but not others. Psychodynamic theories emphasize that unconscious motives and mental processes guide much of our behaviour. Humanist Abraham Maslow proposed that needs exist in a hierarchy, from basic biological needs to the ultimate need for self-actualization. Hunger and Weight Regulation The body monitors several chemicals involved in energy utilization. Changing patterns of glucose usage provide one signal that helps initiate hunger. Upon eating, hormones such as CCK are released into the bloodstream and signal the brain to stop eating. Fat cells release leptin, which acts as a long-term signal that helps to regulate appetite. The hypothalamus and other brain regions play a role in hunger regulation. The expected good taste of food motivates eating, and the thought of food can trigger hunger. Our memory, attitudes, habits, and psychological needs affect out food intake. The availability, taste, and variety of good powerfully regulate eating. Through classical conditioning, neutral stimuli can acquire the capacity to trigger hunger. Cultural norms affect our food preferences and eating habits. Heredity and the environment affect our susceptibility to becoming obese. Homeostatic mechanisms make it difficult to lose substantial weight. Sexual Motivation The last half century has witnessed changing patterns of sexual activity, such as an increase in premarital sex. During sexual intercourse people often experience a four-stage physiological response pattern consisting of excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. Sex hormones have organizational effects that guide the prenatal development of internal and external organs along either a male or female pattern. Sex hormones also have organizational effects that influence sexual desire. Sexual fantasy can trigger arousal, whereas stress and psychological difficulties can interfere with sexual arousal. Cultural norms determine the sexual practices and beliefs that are considered moral, proper, and desirable. Environmental stimuli affect sexual desire. Viewing sexual violence reinforces men’s belief in rape myths and increases men’s aggression toward women, at least temporarily. Sexual orientation involves dimensions of self-identity, sexual attraction, and actual sexual behaviour. No single biological, social, or psychological factor – and no specific combination of causes – has been clearly identified as the cause of sexual orientation. Achievement Motivation People who have a high motivation for success are attracted to the thrill of victory. They value mastery and social comparison. People who have a high fear of failure experience anxiety in achievement settings. They are motivated by social comparison and a fear of performing poorly. High-need achievers seek moderately difficult tasks that are challenging but attainable. Low-need achievers are more likely to choose easy tasks in which success is assured or very difficult tasks in which success is not expected. Child-rearing and cultural factors influence out level and expression of achievement motivation. Motivation in the Workplace For most workers, opportunities for accomplishment and growth are stronger motivators than money. Dissatisfied workers are higher in absenteeism and job turnover than satisfied employees, but job satisfaction is correlated weakly with job productivity Job enrichment programs attempt to increase employees’ motivation by making work tasks more intrinsically motivating. Incentive programs make external reinforcers contingent on certain types of performance. Goal-setting programs set challenging goals and plan a strategy to reach them. Management by objectives includes goal setting, employee participation, and objective performance feedback. Motivational Conflict Motivational goals may conflict with another. Approach-approach conflicts occur when a person has to select between two attractive alternatives. Avoidance-avoidance goals involve choosing between two undesirable alternatives. Approach-avoidance conflicts occur when we are attracted to, and repelled by, the same goal. As we approach the goal, the avoidance tendency usually increases in strength more rapidly than the approach tendency. The Nature and Functions of Emotion And emotion is a positive or negative feeling (or affective state) consisting of a pattern of cognitive, physiological, and behavioural reactions to events that have relevance to important goals or motives. Negative emotional responses are a central feature of the stress response. Emotions further our well-being in several ways: by rousing us to action, by helping us communicate with others, and by eliciting empathy and help. Negative emotions narrow attention and behaviours, whereas positive thoughts tend to broaden our thinking and behaviour. The Nature of Emotion The primary components of emotion are the eliciting stimuli, cognitive appraisals, physiological arousal, and expressive and instrumental behaviours. Individual differences in personality and motivation affect the experience and expression of emotion, as do cultural factors. Although innate factors can affect the eliciting properties of certain stimuli, learning can also play an important role in determining the arousal properties of stimuli. The cognitive component of emotional experience involves the evaluative and personal appraisal of the eliciting stimuli. The ability of thoughts to elicit emotional arousal has been demonstrated clinically and in experimental research. Cross-cultural research indicates considerable agreement across cultures in the appraisals that evoke basic emotions, but also some degree of variation in more complex appraisals. Our physiological responses in emotion are produced by the hypothalamus, the limbic system, and the cortex, and by the autonomic and endocrine systems. There appear to be two systems for emotional behaviour, one involving conscious processing by the cortex, the other unconscious processing by the amygdala. Recent studies suggest that negative emotions reflect greater relative activation of the re right hemisphere, whereas positive emotions are related to relatively greater activation in the left hemisphere. The validity of the polygraph as a ―lie-detector‖ has been questioned largely because of the difficulty of establishing which emotion is being expressed. The behavioural component of emotion includes expressive and instrumental behaviours, Different parts of the face are important in the expression of various emotions. The accuracy of people’s interpretations of these expressions increases when situational cues are also available. Based in part on similarities in facial expression of emotions across widely separate cultures, evolutionary theorists propose that certain fundamental emotional patterns are innate. They agree, however, that cultural learning can influence emotional expression in important ways. Research on the relation between arousal and performance suggests that there is an optimal level of arousal for the performance of any task. This optimal level caries with the complexity or difficulty of the task; complex tasks have lower optimal arousal levels. Interactions among the Components of Emotion Several past and present theories posit causal relations among emotional components. The James- Lange/somatic theory maintains that we first become aroused and then judge what we are feeling. The Cannon-Bard theory proposes that arousal and cognition are simultaneously triggered by the thalamus. Cognitive appraisal theory states that appraisals trigger emotional arousal. According to Schachter’s two- factor theory, arousal tells us how strongly we feel, while cognitions derived from situational cues help us to label the specific emotion. The facial feedback hypothesis, derived from the James-Lange/somatic theory, states that feedback from the facial muscles associated with innate emotional displays affects cognitive and physiological processes. Recent evidence supplies support for the theory. Because of the two-way relations between the cognitive and physiological components of emotion, it is possible to manipulate appraisals and thereby influence the level of arousal. Arousal changes can also affect appraisal of the eliciting stimuli. Key Terms Approach-Approach Conflict: a conflict in which an individual is simultaneously attracted to two incompatible positive goals Approach-Avoidance Conflict: a conflict in which an individual is simultaneously attracted to and repelled by the same goal Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict: a conflict in which an individual must choose between two alternatives, both of which she or he wishes to avoid CCK (Cholecytokinin): a peptide that appears to decrease eating and thereby helps regulate food intake Cognitive Appraisal: the process of making judgements about situations, personal capabilities, likely consequences, and the personal meaning of consequences Delay Discounting: the decrease in value of a future incentive as a function of its distance in time Display Rules: culturally influenced standards for the circumstances and manner in which specific emotions are expressed Drive Theory: the theory that physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce states of internal tension (called drives) that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension Emotion: a pattern of cognitive, physiological, and behavioural responses to situations and events that have relevance to important goals or motives Empathy: the capacity for experiencing the same emotional response being exhibited by another person; in therapy, the ability of a therapist to view the world through the client’s eyes and to understand the client’s emotions Expectancy X Value Theory: a cognitive theory that goal-directed behaviour is jointly influenced by 1) the person’s expectancy that a particular behaviour will contribute to reaching the goals and 2) how positively or negatively the person values the goal Expressive Behaviours: observable behavioural indications of subjectively experienced emotions Extrinsic Motivation: motivation to perform a behaviour to obtain external rewards and reinforcers, such as money, status, attention, and praise Facial Feedback Hypothesis: the notion that somatic feedback from facial muscles provides feedback to the brain and influences emotional experience Fundamental Emotional Patterns: basic emotional response patterns that are believed to be innate Glucose: a simple sugar that is the body’s (and especially the brain’s) major source of immediately usable fuel Homeostasis: the maintenance of biological equilibrium, or balance, within the body Incentive: an environmental stimulus or condition that motivates behaviour Instinct: an inherited characteristic, common to all members of a species, that automatically produces a particular response when the organism is exposed to a particular stimulus Instrumental Behaviours: emotional coping behaviours that are directed at achieving the goal or performing the task that is relevant to the emotion Intrinsic Motivation: the motivation to perform a behaviour simply because one finds it interesting or enjoyable for its own sake Job Enrichment: an approach to increasing employees’ intrinsic motivation by making their jobs more fulfilling and providing them with opportunities for growth Leptin: a hormone secreted by fat cells that decreases general appetite Management by Objectives (MBO): an approach to increasing employees’ motivation by combining goal-setting with employee participation and feedback Metabolism: the rate of energy expenditure by the body Motivation: a process that influences the direction, persistence and vigour of goal-directed behaviour Need for Achievement: the desire to accomplish tasks and attain standards of excellence Need Hierarchy: Maslow’s view that human needs are arranged in a progression, beginning with deficiency needs and then reaching growth needs Paraventricular Nucleus (PVN): a cluster of neurons in the hippocampus packed with receptor sites for transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite Polygraph: a research and clinical instrument that measures a wide array of physiological responses Self-Actualization: in humanistic theories, an inborn tendency to drive toward the realization of one’s full potential Sexual Orientation: a person’s emotional and erotic preference for partners of a particular sex Sexual Response Cycle: a physiological response to sexual stimulation that involves stages of excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution Somatic Theory of Emotions: a modern emotion theory inspired by the James-Lange theory that emphasizes the causal role of bodily responses in the experiencing of emotion Two-factor Theory of Emotions: Schachter’s theory that the intensity of physiological arousal determines perceived intensity of emotion, whereas the appraisal of environmental cues tells us which emotion we are experiencing Vascular Theory of Emotional Feedback: the version of the facial feedback hypothesis that attributes facial muscle effects to the warming or cooling of blood that is entering the brain Chapter Three Physiology Neural Basis of Behaviour each neuron has dendrites (receive nerve impulses from other neurons), a cell body (soma, which controls the vital processes of the cell), and an axon (conducts nerve impulses to adjacent neurons, muscles, and glands) neural transmission is an electrochemical process  nerve impulse (action potential) = brief reversal in electrical potential of the cell membrane as sodium ions from surrounding fluid flow into the cell through sodium ion channels (depolarizing the axon’s membrane) graded potentials = proportional to the amount of stimulation being received action potentials obey the all-or-none law  occur at full intensity if the action potential threshold of stimulation if reached (camera shutter example) myelin sheath increases the speed of neural transmissions -passage of the impulse across the synapse is mediated by chemical transmitter substances  neurons are selective in the neurotransmitters that can stimulate them some neurotransmitters excite neurons, whereas others inhibit firing of the postsynaptic neuron The Nervous System nervous system is composed of sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons (associative neurons) two major divisions = central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) + peripheral nervous system peripheral nervous system divided into somatic system (sensory + motor functions) and autonomic nervous system (directs activity of body’s internal organs and glands) spinal cord contains sensory neurons and motor neurons  interneurons inside spinal cord serve a connective function between the two simple stimulus-response connections can occur as spinal reflexes autonomic nervous system = sympathetic + parasympathetic divisions (both maintain homeostasis) sympathetic = arousal function (acts as a unity) *reaction parasympathetic = slows down body processes and is more specific in its actions *bringing it back to normal discoveries about brain-behaviour relations are made using techniques such as neuropsychological tests, lesioning and surgical ablation, electrical and chemical stimulation of the brain, electrical recording, and brains imaging techniques computer-generated pictures of structures and processes within living brain  CT, PET scans, and MRI The Hierarchical Brain: Structures and Behaviour Functions human brains consists of: hind brain + midbrain + forebrain  organization reflects evolution of increasingly more complex brain structures related to behavioural capacities major structures within the hindbrain = medulla (monitors and controls vital body functions) + the pons (contains important groups of sensory and motor neurons) + cerebellum (motor coordination) midbrain contains important sensory and motor neurons, as well as many sensory + motor tracts connecting higher and lower parts of the nervous system reticular formation  vital role in consciousness, attention, and sleep activity of ascending reticular formation excites higher areas of the brain and prepares them to respond to stimulation descending reticular formation acts as gate, determining which stimuli get through to enter into consciousness forebrain consists of two cerebral hemispheres and a number of subcortical structures  cerebral hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum thalamus = switchboard through which impulses origination in sense organs are routed to appropriate sensory projection areas hypothalamus = supporting many different biological drives limbic system = involved in organizing the behaviours involved in motivation and emotion cerebral cortex  divided into frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes some areas of cerebral cortex receive sensory input, some control motor functions, and others (association cortex) are involved in higher mental processes in humans frontal lobes = executive functions such as planning, voluntary behaviour, and self-awareness although the two cerebral hemispheres ordinarily work in coordination, they appear to have different functions and abilities  studies of split-brain patients (cut corpus callosum) indicate that L hemisphere commands language and mathematical abilities whereas R hemisphere has well-developed spatial abilities (but generally limited ability to communicated through speech) recent findings indicate that language functions are less lateralized in women than in men positive emotions are believed to be linked to relatively greater L hemisphere activation and negative ones to R-hemisphere involvement despite hemispherical localization, most behaviours involve interactions between both hemispheres  brain = system Plasticity in the Brain: The Role of Experience and the Recovery Function neural plasticity = ability of neurons to change in structure and functions environmental factors (particularly in early life) have notable effects on brain development a person’s ability to recover from brain damage depends on several factors  other things being equal, recovery is greatest early in life and declines with age when neurons die, surviving neurons can sprout enlarged dendritic networks and extend axons to form new synapses neurons can also increase the amount of neurotransmitter substance they release so that they are more sensitive to stimulation recent findings = brains of mature primates and humans are capable of producing new neurons current advances in treatment of neurological disorders include experiments on neuron regeneration, the grafting of nerve tissues that produces dopamine in the brains of Parkinson’s disease patients, and the injection of neural stem cells into the brain, where they find and replace diseased or dead neurons Nervous System Interactions with the Endocrine and Immune Systems nervous + endocrine + immune systems have extensive neural and chemical means of communication  each is capable of affecting and being affected by the others endocrine system secretes hormones into bloodstream  chemical messengers affect many body processes (activities of central and autonomic nervous systems)  hormonal effects in the womb may produce brain differences in males and females that influence sex diff in certain psychological functions as a behaving entity, immune system has the capacity to sense, interpret, and respond to specific forms of stimulation immune system disorders can occur because of an underactive or overactive immune system allergic reactions and autoimmune conditions are caused by over activity; cancer and AIDS result from under activity Key Terms Acetylcholine (ACh): an excitatory neurotransmitter that operates at synapses with muscles and is also the transmitter in some neural networks involved in memory Action Potential: a nerve impulse resulting from the depolarization of an axon’s cell membrane Action Potential Threshold: the intensity of stimulation (excitatory minus inhibitory) needed to produce an action potential Adrenal Glands: endocrine glands that release stress hormones, including epinepfrine and norepinephrine All-Or-None Law: the face that an action potential is not proportional to the intensity of stimulation; a neutron either fires with maximum intensity or it does not fire (compare with graded potential) Amygdala: a limbic system structure that helps organize emotional response patterns Antigen: literally, antibody generators, or foreign substances that activate the cells of the immune system Aphasia: the loss of ability to understand speech (receptive aphasia) or to produce it (productive aphasia) Association Cortex: the areas of the cerebral cortex that do not have sensory or motor functions but are involved in the integration of neural activity that underlies perception, language, and other higher-order mental processes Autoimmune Reaction: immune disorders in which the immune system mistakenly identifies part of the body as an antigen and attacks it Autonomic Nervous System: the branch of the peripheral nervous system that stimulates the body’s involuntary muscles (e.g., heart) and internal organs Axon: an extension from one side of the neuron cell body that conducts nerve impulses to other neurons, muscles, or glands Basal Ganglia: A series of structures located deep in the brain responsible for motor movements. Brain Stem: the portion of the brain formed by the swelling of the spinal cord as it enters the skull; its structures regulate basic survival functions of the body, such as heart rate and respiration Broca’s Area: a region of the left frontal love involved in speech production Central Nervous System: portion of the nervous system that includes the brain and the spinal cord Cerebellum: a convoluted hindbrain structure involved in motor coordination and some aspects of learning andmemory Cerebral Cortex: the grey, convoluted outer covering of the brain that is the seat of higher—order sensory, motor, perceptual, and mental processes Computerized Axial Tomography (CT) Scan: a method of scanning the brain with narrow beams of X-rays that are then analyzed and combined by a computer to provide pictures of brain structures from many different angles Corpus Callosum: a broad band of white, myelinated fibres that connect the left and right cerebral hemispheres and allow the two hemispheres to communicate with one another Cortisol: a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex, involved in carbohydrate metabolism and the stress reaction Dendrites: small branching fibres that extend from the soma of a neuron and receive messages from adjacent neurons Depolarization: the reversal of the resting potential of a neuron’s cell membrane that produces the action potential Dopamine: an excitatory neurotransmitter whose overactivity may underlie some of the disordered behaviours seen in schizophrenia Electroencephalograph (EEG): a device used to record the simultaneous activity of many thousands of neurons through electrodes attached to the scalp Endocrine System: the body’s system of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream and thereby affect mainly bodily functions Endorphins: natural opiate-like substances that are involved in pain reduction Forebrain: brain structures above the midbrain, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, and the cerebral hemispheres; involved in higher-order sensory, motor, and cognitive functions Frontal Lobe: the anterior (front) portion of the cerebral hemispheres that includes Broca’s speech production area, the motor cortex, and associative cortex involved in planning and problem solving Graded Potential: a change in the electrical potential of a neuron that is proportional to the intensity of the incoming stimulation, but not sufficient to produce an action potential Hippocampus: a structure of the limbic system that plays a key role in the formation and storage of memories Hormones: chemical substances secreted by the glands of the endocrine system that travel in the bloodstream and affect bodily organs as well as psychological functions and development Hypothalamus: a forebrain structure located below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland that controls autonomic and hormonal processes and plays a major role in many aspects of motivation and emotional behaviour Interneurons: neurons that are neither sensory nor motor neurons, but perform associative or integrative functions within the nervous system Ion Channels: special protein molecules located on the membrane of a neuron that control the entry and exit of specific ions, such as sodium and potassium Lateralization: the localization of a function in either the right or left cerebral hemisphere Limbic System: a group of subcortical structures, including the hippocampus and amygdala, which are involved in organizing many goal0directed and emotional behaviours Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): a procedure that produces a highly detailed image of living tissue based on the tissue’s response to a magnetic field; can be used to study both structure and, in the case of functional MRI (fMRI), brain functions as they occur Medulla: a brain stem structure that controls vital functions, including heartbeat and respiration Midbrain: brain structures above the hindbrain that are involved in sensory and motor functions and in attention and states of consciousness Motor Cortex: cortical area in the back of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements on the opposite sides of the body Motor Neurons: specialized neurons that carry neural messages from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands Myelin Sheath: a fatty insulating substance on the axon of some neurons that increases the speed of neural transmission Neural Stem Cells: Neural Plasticity: the ability of neurons to modify their structure and function in response to experiential factors or injury Neuromodulators: neurotransmitter substances that are released by neurons and circulate within the nervous system to affect the sensitivity of many neurons to their natural transmitter substances Neurons: nerve cells that constitutes the basic building blocks of the nervous system Neurotransmitter: chemical substances that are released from the axons of one neuron, travel across the synaptic space, and bind to specially keyed receptors in another neuron, where they produce a chemical reaction that is either excitatory or inhibitory Nucleus Accumbens: Parasympathetic Nervous System: the branch potion of the autonomic nervous system that slows down bodily processes in order to conserve energy and reduce arousal Parietal Lobe: the cerebral region behind the frontal lobe that contains the somatic sensory cortex and Wernicke’s speech comprehension area Peripheral Nervous System: all of the neurons that connect the central nervous state, with the sensory receptors, the muscles, and the glands Pons: a brain stem structure having sensory and motor tracts whose functions are involved in sleep and dreaming Position Emission Tomography (PET) Scan: a procedure that provides a visual display of the absorption of a radioactive substance by neurons, indicating how actively they are involved as the brain performs a task Prefrontal Cortex: the area of the frontal lobe just behind the eyes and forehead that is involved in the executive functions of panning, self-awareness, and responsibility Receptor Sites: protein molecules on neurons’ dendrites or soma that are specially shaped to accommodate a specific neurotransmitter molecule Reticular Formation: a structure extending from the hindbrain into the midbrain that plays a central role in consciousness and attention, in part by alerting and activating higher brain centres (ascending portion), and by selectively blocking some inputs from admission to higher regions in the brain (descending portion) Reuptake: process whereby transmitter substances are taken back into the presynaptic neuron so that they do not continue to stimulate postsynaptic neurons Sensory Neurons: specialized neurons that carry messages from the sense organs to the spinal cord and brain Serotonin: a neurotransmitter that seems to underlie positive mood states; under activity may be a factor in depression Somatic Nervous System: Somatic Sensory Cortex: cortical strips in the front protions of the parietal lobes that receive sensory input from various regions of the body Sympathetic Nervous System: the branch of the autonomic nervous system that has an arousal function on the body’s internal organs, speeding up bodily processes and mobilizing the body Synapse: the microscopic space between neurons over which the nerve impulse is biochemically transmitted Synap
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