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Psychology 1000 Midterm.doc

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PSYC 1000
Dan Meegan

Psychology Midterm Module 1 - Functionalism: how mental processes allow us to adapt & survive - Behaviourism: psychology should be an objective science that studies behaviour without reference to mental processes. - Humanistic psychologists: emphasized growth potential of healthy people (importance of love and acceptance needs). - Cognitive neuroscience: study brain activity linked with cognition (perception, memory, thinking, language)  percieving & processing information. - Nature vs. Nurture: TODAY nuture adds to nature. - Biopsychosocial approach: integrated approach considers biological, psychological & social-cultural aspects. - Levels of analysis offer complimentary outlooks for analyzing any given phenomenon. PERSPECTIVES - Neuroscience: how the body & brain enable emotions, memories & sensory experiences. - Evolutionary: natural selection & genes - Behaviour genetics: how our genes & environment infuence our differences - Psychodynamic: how behviour is caused by unconcious drives & conflicts - Behavioural: how we learn observable behaviour - Cognitive: how we encode, process & retreive information - Social-cultural: how behaviour & thinking vary in situations/cultures Module 2 - Hindsight bias: the tendancy to believe, after learning an outcome, that you would have forseen it. - Overconfidence: humans tend to think we know more than we do, which is why you cannot rely soley on intuition. - People are prone to seeing patterns in random events.  Random sequences often don’t look random. - INTUITION vs. SCIENCE: intuition is not enough to understand & predict behaviour, although many people claim “psychology is just common sense”.  ex. Intuition says unique faces are attractive, science proves average faces are attractive. - Critical thinking: does not blindly accept arguments & conclusions, INSTEAD it examines assumptions, uncovers hidden values, evaluates evidence & assesses conclusions. Module 3 DESCRIPTION - OBSERVE BEHAVIOUR - Case studies: one person studied in depth (often not enough on its own). - Naturalistic observation: observation in a naturally occuring situation (describes behaviour, does not explain). - Survey: looks at cases less in depth; self-reported.  Strive for random sample (representative of entire population)  Wording effects can completely change the question CORRELATION - DETECT RELATIONSHIP - Correlation is a measure of the extent to which 2 factos vary together. (how well one predicts the other). - Perfect positive correlation: +1.00 - Perfect negative correlation: -1.00 - Association does not prove causation (A could cause B, B could cause A, or C could cause A & B). EXPERIMENTATION - EXPLORE CAUSE & EFFECT - An experiment is a research method in which one or more factors are manipulated (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behaviour or mental process (dependent variable). - Random assignment: assigning participants to control & experimental groups by chance. - Double-blind procedure: both the participants & research staff are unaware of who recieves the placebo & who recieves the treatment. - Control group: not exposed to treatment (serves as comparison). Module 4 - As the myelin sheath is laid, neural efficiency, judgement & self-control grow. - Neurons transmit messages when stimulated by signals are triggered by other neurons.  In response, it fires an impulse called the action potential. - Neurons generate electricity from chemical events. - Exterior of neuron: positively charged electrons - Interior of neuron: negatively charged electrons  THIS IS RESTING POTENTIAL. - The axon’s membrane is selectively permeable.  When a neuron fires, gates open to allow Na to flood in the membrane.  If strong enough, this creates depolarization & an action potential, causing more channels to open & more Na to rush in. +  During the refractory period (brief pause), the neuron pumps the Na back out so that it may fire again. - Higher levels of stimulation do not increase intensity of the impulse - Intensity is detected by multiple neurons or more frequent neural impulses (eg. Shooting a gun). 1. Action potential travels down axon & reaches the synapse. 2. This stimulates the release of neurotransmitters, which cross the synaptic gap & bind to receptors of the receiving cell, allowing electrically charged atoms to enter the neuron & excite or inhibit. 3. Sending neuron reabsorbs excess neurotransmitters (reuptake). - Neurotransmitter systems interact; effects depend upon receptors. - Agonists: bind to receptors & mimic effects of neurotransmitter - Antagonists: bind to receptors & block neurotransmitter functioning - Peripheral Nervous System: sensory & motor neurons - Nerves: bundles of axons that connect CNS to muscles, glands & sense organs.  Somatic: voluntary control of skeletal muscles  Autonomic: glands & internal organ muscles  Sympathetic: arouses & expends energy  Parasympathetic: conserves energy & calms - To experience bodily pleasure or pain, the brain must be involved. - Neurons cluster into neural networks when related for easy communication. - Hormones: chemical messengers; travel through bloodstream & affect other tissues. - Adrenal cortex: above kidneys, secretes epinephrine & norepinephrine. - Pituitary gland: regulates growth & controls other glands. Module 5 WAYS TO DISCOVER WHAT’S DIFFERENT ABOUT THE MIND WHEN THE BRAIN ISN’T WORKING PROPERLLY: - Case studies of accidents - Case studies of split-brain patients - Lesioning brain parts of animals to see what happens - Chemically numbing, magnetically deactivating or electrically stimulating parts of the brain.  Electroencephalogram (EEG): records waves of electrical activity, measured by electrodes  Positron emission tomography (PET): detects path of radioactive glucose while performing a given task.  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): makes images after magnets align atomic spin (shows brain anatomy).  fMRI: successive MRI images to show movement/change in anatomy. OLDER BRAIN PARTS (functions all occur without concious effort) - Brainstem: oldest part & central core of the brain (automatic survival functions). - Medulla: base of the brainstem (controls heartbeat & breathing). - Pons: above medulla (coordinates movement). - Thalamus: switchboard (information passes through here on its way to various destinations)  All senses except smell. - Reticular formation: enables arousal (filters incoming stimuli & sends important information to various areas of the brain). - Cerebellum: “Little brain”  Nonverbal learning & memory, time judgement, emotional regulation, sound/texture discrimination & movement coordination. LIMBIC SYSTEM (emotions; connects thought to body) - Amygdala: 2 neural clusters linked to emotion (aggression & fear). - Hypothalamus: directs several maintenance activities, governs endocrine system, & is linked to emotion & reward. - Hippocampus: processes memory. Module 6 - Frontal: speaking, muscles, judgement, planning - Parietal: sensory cortex - Occipital: visual processing - Temporal: auditory processing - The sensory cortex registers & processes body touch & movement sensations (input info) - The motor cortex controls coluntary movement (output movement) - Association areas: areas that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions, rather they are involved in higher mental functions. - Plasticity: the brain’s ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experiences. - Constraint-induced therapy aims to improve dexterity of brain-damaged person. - Some neural tissue can be reorganized. - Plasticity may account for why deaf people have enhanced peripheral vision - Neurogenesis: formation of new neurons. - Split brain: a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain’s 2 hemispheres by cutting the fibres connecting them (mainly the corpus callosum). - Lateralization: “going to one side” - The two hemispheres do not work together without the corpus callosum - Only left half has the ability to express its thoughts out loud - Left side perceives the view of the right side & vise versa - EX.  he | art flashed on screen. Person says they see ART (right side) but points to the word HE (left side). Module 32 - Drive-reduction theory: a physoiological need creates an aroused tension state (drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.  Arises from homeostasis: maintenance of a steady internal state.  Also influenced by incentive: positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaviour.  Control centre  Response system  Internal state  Sensor - Mechanical sensors: stomach & intestinal distension - Chemical sensors: nutrients, peptide hormones/neurotransmitters GLUCOSE SENSORS  When blood glucose levels decrease: - liver converts stored nutrients to glucose - hypothalamus triggers hunger  When blood glucose levels increase: - pancreas secretes insulin to convert & store glucose as fat - GHRELIN: secreted in the stomach (hunger increases) - PYY: intesines (hunger decreases short-term) - LEPTIN: secreted by fat cells (hunger decreases long-term) - OREXIN: released by hypothalamus to other brain parts (hunger increases) - Homeostasis of energy regulation: ENERGY IN = ENERGY OUT PSYCHLOGICAL INFLUENCES ON OVEREATING - Sight & smell of food - Variety of available food - Memory of time elapsed since last meal - Stress & mood - Food unit size PHYSIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES - A previously overweight person must eat fewer calories to maintain their weight because their metabolism is much lower. - Genetics (overweight parents often mean overweight children) - Lack of sleep = overweight - Friends have similar weights - Animals & humans are evolved to eat when food is available (evolution). - Sight/smell alone triggers drop in glucose  hunger/eating - REWARD SYSTEM: eating is pleasurable  Can override homeostatic energy regulation. Module 7 - Cognitive neuroscience: study of brain activity linked with perception, thinking, memory & language.  fMRI evidence for awareness in vegetative patients.  blindsight: patients who conciously cannot see anything, but can respond to a visual stimulus. - Dual processing: information is often simutaneously processed on separate conscious & unconscious tracks (organizing & interpreting at the same time). - Inattentional blindness: failure to see visible objects when our attention is focused elsewhere. - Change blindness: blind to changes at scene cuts, during distractions, or during eye movements.  failure of short term memory  evolutionary: why store something that is right in front of us? - Choice blindness: don’t notice a switch after we make a decision (ex. jam test)  once we’ve committed; come too far to back pedal Module 17 - Absolute threshold: minimum stimulation required to detect a stimulus 50% of the time. - Signal detection theory: how & when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus.  Assumes not single absolute threshold; detection is based upon experiences, expectations, motivation & alertness. - Top-down: construct percepti
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