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Psychology 1000 Final.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1000
Professor
Dan Meegan
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychology Final Module 11 (Behaviour Genetics & Evolutionary Psychology) Innate Constraints on Behaviour Behaviour Genetics: - Individual differences (due to genetic differences) - Mutations not differentially affected by natural selection Evolutionary Psychology: - Universaal commonalities (due to genetic similarities) - Genetics that conferred a reproductive advantage to all Behaviour Genetics - 23 chromosomes (22 autosomes & 1 pair of sex chromosomes) - ONE APPROACH:  Identify a specific behavioural (phenotypic) abnormality  Look for a corresponding genotypic abnormality  Ex. KE family: half suffer from a speech & language disorder - Compare affected to unaffected:  Speech (repetition of non-words) - Because KE adults learned to compensate by memorizing words  Orofacial motor control (open mouth & stick tongue out) - KE adults have difficulty with mouth/face movements  Grammar difficulty  Structural/functional brain abnormalities - Genetic or environmental? Why does it affect one sibling & not another?  Since raised in same household; same environment = genetic. - Single gene or multiple genes?  Multiple: varying degrees of disability  Single: disability or no disability - Autosomal or Sex?  Males & females equally affected. - Dominant or recessive?  Affected children only had one affected parent. Interpreting Gene-Behaviour Link - Media: the ‘grammar’ gene (idea that you could inject a pig with this gene & make it talk). - FOXP2 (gene linked with KE family) affects song learning in song birds. - Reduced vocalization in mice - FOXP2 is different in echolocating bats than in non-ecolocating - FOXP2 different in humans than in chimpanzees - Neanderthal (DNA extracted from bones) also had FOXP2 like humans Evolutionary Psychology - RECIPROCAL ALTRUISM: only being nice to someone to get something in return later (help those in need & they are obligated to help you when you are in need).  A cynical view of human nature  Do not help someone who has failed to help you in the past. - Consequences for human behaviour: - Important to be recognized for our deeds - “Cheater” detection & punishment (the guy who never picks up the tab) - Important to keep track of who’s done what for whom (gossip) - Uncomfortable to be “in debt” (resenting generous people) QUESTIONS FROM SKEPTICS - How do you explain anonymous philanthropy? - Very rare - Even though anonymous, a lot of people actually know who it was Module 12: Culture, Gender and Other Environmentaal Influences Nature/Nurture - How environment/experience affects brain development. - Forces guiding the course of development: - Parents - Peers - Culture - Our environment gives us our experiences. - Baby = blank colouring book; colours = experiences. Experience & Brain Development - Rats living in a more interactive & physical environment experienced a greater growth in brain size & complexity than those living in “impoverished” environment.  Neuroplasticity. - Brain development means growth AND pruning.  To make our frequently used brain pathways work more efficiently, the unused connections are “pruned” away.  Certain unused abilities will fade away. - Repeated practice at a finger-tapping task begins to activate a [slightly] larger group of motor neurons.  Process continues into adulthood. - Is parenting a powerful environmental influence on development?  Generally, environmental influences (including parenting) account for about 10% of temperament, although much higher for other features (e.g. values).  Extreme parenting, including severe neglect & abuse, increases this percentage. Parents vs. Peers Parents have more influence on:  Education & career path  Cooperation  Self-discipline  Responsibility  Charitableness  Religion  Style of interaction with authority figures Peers have more influence on:  Learning cooperation skills  Learning the path to popularity  Choice of music & other recreation  Choice of clothing & other cultural choices  Good & bad habit Modules 13 & 14 - DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY examines physical, cognitive & social development across the lifespan. MAJOR ISSUES  Nature/Nurture  Continuity/Stages (some aspects of development are gradual & continuous, while others change abruptly in stages)  Stability/Change (what traits persist throughout life & what changes as we age?) STAGES - Extreme View: change occurs in a series of abrupt, age-linked stages (like a caterpillar  butterfly; crawl  walk). - Modest View  SERIAL: development tends to happen in order – e.g., reading can’t happen until letter-sound correspondence is understood  AGE-LINKING: flexible & experience-dependent – e.g., reading age depends on when taught lettersound correspondence  “ABRUPT”: old mistakes may still occur but with less frequency. PIAGET: Cognitive Development - Children makes mistakes - Mistakes are age-dependant - Mistakes tell us where children are developmentally (what knowlegde & skills they have thus far). - Schemas are necessary to makes sense of our experiences (a concept or framework).  Schemas acccomodate new information provided by experiences (adapting current understanding to incorporate new info).  Assimilation: interrpreting new experiences using existing schemas. PIAGET’S 4 STAGES - Sensorimotor (0-2): experience the world through senses & motor activites  Stranger anxiety  Lack object permananence; awareness that things continue to exist even when not percieved. - Preoperational (2-6/7): Representing things with words & images; using intuitive rather than logical reasoning.  Pretend play  Egocentrism: difficulty perceiving things from other’s point of view. - Concrete Operational (7-11): Thinking logically abour concrete events; grasping analogies & performing arithmetical operations.  Conservation: properties such as mass, volume & number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.  Mathematical transformations (if 3 + 6 = 9 then 9 – 6 = …? ) - Formal Operational (12+): Abstract reasoning.  Hypothetical reasoning (if… then…)  Using symbols (e.g. algebra).  Potential for mature moral reasoning. - Piaget’s legacy: cognitive milestones & appreciation of what kids are/are not capable of. TECHNIQUES TO ASSES NEWBORN KNOWLEDGE - Habituation: responding decreases with repeated stimulation  If the child can discriminate, no habituation. - Visual preferences - Associative Responding: tie leg to mobile = baby learns to kick, change mobile & baby stops kicking. Cultural Influences on Development - CULTURE: patterns of ideas, attitudes, values, lifestyle habits, & traditions shared by a group of people & passed on to future generations.  Not just an influence on our nature, also a part of our nature. Humans naturally form culture. VARIATION - Each culture has norms (standards for acceptable, expected behaviour). - Culture shock: feeling lost about what behaviours are appropriate. CULTURAL VARIATION OVER TIME - Language changes in vocabulary & pronunciation. - Pace of life quickens. - Gender equality increases. - People sleep less, socialize in person less, stare at screens more. - People marry more for love, but then expect more romance. - Culture & the self: individualism & collectivism.  Individualist: cultures vaule independence. Promote personal ideals, strengths & goals, pursued in competition with others, leading to individual acheivement & finding a unique identity.  Collectivist: cultures value interdependence. Promote group & societal goals & duties, & blending in with group identity, with acheivement attributed to mutual support. Gender & Social Learning - Gender identity (GI): the sense of being male of female - Social learning – Children learn gender identity by:  Observing & imitating gender-linked behaviours  Being rewarded or punished for acting consistently or inconsistently with GI norms. - Alternatively: learning not sufficient to explain boys/girls acting like boys/girls Module 40 Personality  An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. - Focus: what makes us unique rather than what we all have in common. - Psychodynamic: Nurture, dynamic - Trait: Nature, stable Psychodynamic Theories - Personality is a dynamic interaction between opposing influences SIGMUND FREUD & PSYCHOANALYSIS - Psychoanalysis: both a theory of personality & a theory of psychopathology (& its treatment.  Theory developed by studying cases of pathology.  Can “normal” be understood by studying “abnormal”? - Nurture plays a significant role in personality development - Determinism: the underlying bases of our personality determine our behaviour; thus every act is revealing.  Freud was a determinist. - First theory to emphasize that the unconscious mind was a significant influence on personality. LEVELS OF MIND - Conscious  Relatively small aspect of personality  Attempts to repress the unconscious - Preconscious  Unconscious but accessible to conscious - Unconscious  Relatively large aspect of personality  Influences behaviour without our awareness DYNAMIC INTERACTION OF 3 SYSTEMS - ID: unconscious  Nature: biological drives to seek pleasure (especially sex) and act aggressively.  Pleasure principle: immediate gratification - EGO: largely conscious  Develops through childhood+  Reality principle: managing the id’s drive for pleasure, given real-world constraints. - SUPEREGO: largely conscious  Develops later & guided by cultural norms  Conscience: how we ought to behave PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES - Are due to differences in the way that the 3 systems interact with each other. PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT - Id: innate, biological drives - Ego: from birth through adolescence - Superego: 4-5 years through adolescence - Young children: immediate gratification; no sense of right & wrong. - Adulthood: delayed gratification; fully developed morality. PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES - Piaget: stage theory of cognitive development. - Freud: stage theory of personality development.  Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital - Stages distinguished by erogenous zone that is focus of id - Each stage characterized by conflicting tendencies - Conflicts usually resolved in healthy way  e.g. via repression of id by ego FIXATION - Id deprived of pleasure during stage  e.g. weaned too early during oral stage - Fixation at deprived stage - Corresponding adult abnormal behaviour  e.g. helplessness, anger or maladaptive need for oral gratification DEFENSE MECHANISMS - Anxiety results when ego struggles to manage id & superego - Ego has defense mechanisms to reduce or redirect anxiety… - Repression - Regression - Reaction formation - Projection - Rationalization - Displacement - Denial Module 42 Trait Theories - Trait: a characteristic pattern of behaviour or a disposition to feel & act. - Conscious (vs. Unconscious) motives  Self-report (vs. Psychoanalysis) - Describing (vs. Explaining) behaviour TRAIT ASSESSMENT - An inventory of items for which people make self-assessments - Factor analysis used to determine which items cluster together  Clusters = factors  i.e. people who say “true” to one item tend to say “true” to another - Factors describe an important dimension on which we all fall - Ex. Factor: Extraversion  3 items cluster: outgoing, practical jokes, dislike quiet reading.  Factor = extraversion  Dimension: introversion  extraversion PERSONALITY TEST - Statements describing people’s behaviours - Ratte accurately how each statement describes you - You now THE “BIG FIVE”  C.A.N.O.E - Conscientiousness - Agreeableness - Neuroticism (emotional stability) - Openness - Extraversion HOW MANY FACTORS? - Theories range from between 2 & 5 factors - Ex. Eysenck & Eysenck: 2  Extraversion & Emotional stability QUESTIONS ABOUT TRAITS - Stability: Does one’s profile of traits change over the lifespan?  No, one’s distinctive mix of traits doesn’t change much.  However, everyone in adulthood becomes: more conscientious & agreeable, & less extraverted, neurotic/u
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