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Psych 1000 - Units 1-12 .docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1000
Professor
Harvey Marmurek
Semester
Summer

Description
Unit 1: History and Research Methods Aristotle: theories were wrong, was right to question the mind; Plato’s student Wundt: physiologist; made psychology a science by adding observations and experiments to the study; experiment of the time lapse of hearing a ball drop and being aware of hearing a ball drop Titchener: Wundt’s student; built view of mind (structuralism) by using people’s described sensations (introspection), not generalized for all James: philosopher; developed functionalism, mental process adapts and thrives; mentored: st Calkins: memory, 1 APA female president } denied research studies Washburn: animals, 2 APA female president } due to gender inequality Freud: medicine; founded psychoanalysis; helped many with mental diseases; focused on importance of childhood experience Manslow & Rogers: humanistic; studied those healthy and thriving mentally; theories and treatments for helping reach full potential; growth of healthy people; love and acceptance Watson & Skinner: behaviorist; believed you cannot observe sensation, but can record behavior when responding to different situations Gall: proposed phrenology (study of bumps on brain), bumps revealed mental abilities and character traits; incorrect theory, however right about localization of functions Psychology: science of mental processes and behaviors Psychiatry: both therapy and medical treatment Behaviorism: view that psychology should be objective and without reference to mental processes Classical conditioning: associate emotion with something Operant conditioning: reward for good things Humanism: study the thriving rather then with psychology problems Nurture works on what Nature endows Aristotle We share common origin of human nature (behavior pushed by biology) Plato Locke We have differences shaped by environment (behavior pulled by biology) Descartes Darwin Levels of analysis: differing views from biological, psychological, social cultural; analyzing phenomena Biopsychosocial levels: integrated approach with levels of analysis Deep Biology Psychology Environment -genes -reflexes -thoughts -moods -social influences -culture -brain - sensations -emotions -choices -educational -relationships -survival -neurotransmitters -behavior -traits -knowledge -perceptions S – study and survey Phenomena – cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense Q - question Hindsight bias: value old info more than new; “I knew it all along” 3 R - read, review, rehearse, write Coincidence error: mistakenly seeing patterns in random events Overconfidence error: certainty builds confidence Judgmental overconfidence: performance, overestimate ourselves; accuracy, more certain than accurate; intuition is positively reinforced Perspectives Neuroscience: how body/brain enables emotions, memory, and sensory experiences Evolutionary: how natural selection of traits has promoted survival of genes Behavior genetics: how genes and environment influence our individual differences Psychodynamic: how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts Behavioral: how we learn observational responses Cognitive: how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information Social/cultural: how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures Basic research – increases knowledge Biological: structure of the brain Developmental: stages of cognition and emotional development Cognitive: how information is perceived, processes, and retrieved Cognitive neuroscience: brain activity underlying mental activity Personality: personality differences in individuals Social: how thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of an individual are influenced by society Positive: human functioning and promotes strengths and virtues to thrive Applied research – solve practical problems Clinical: exposure therapy to decrease phobic rxns; study, assess, treat those w/ psychological problems Counselling: attain career goals despite self/family doubt; assists those w/ living & wellbeing problems Educational: assist those with learning difficulties to succeed Industrial/Organizational: helps companies/factories on task coordination, roles, & personalities Community: interactions in social environments & effect of social institutes on individuals and groups Research Descriptive: observe and record behavior, why act that way; no manipulation, no variable controls Case study: individual and in depth; not general, may have an atypical subject?; pro – general human nature, con – overgeneralization, jump to conclusions Naturalistic: no intervening, watch naturally; broader populations Survey/Interview: self-reported behaviors; word carefully, bias; random sample Correlation: two vary together; naturally occurring relationships; one predicts other; no manipulation Coefficient (r): number representing strength and direction ( |/ positive: one up other up & one down other down) ( |\ negative: one up other down & one down other up) Experimental: explore cause and effect behavior; manipulate one or more factor for behavior/mental process effect; sample then sort; may not generalize; sometimes not ethical Placebo effect: caused by expectations; behavior changes Experimental group: exposed to treatment Control group: not exposed, comparable for effect of treatment Double blind: both scientists and participates do not know which group is which Independent variable (IV): being manipulated, effect is being studied Dependent variable (DV): outcome factor, may change in response to IV manipulation Cofounding variable: third factor that effects the experiment other than IV variables Random sampling: retrieve participants by randomly selecting in population you’re exploring Random assignment: minimized differences between groups; makes group the same; control variables that you are not manipulating Critical thinking: logical, not intuition; not blindly accept arguments and conclusion; examines assumptions, hidden values, evaluate evidence, assess conclusions Generalize from sample? Human/Animal Research Protection: debriefing, treated humanely/comfortably, info kept confidential, consent - representative sample, not bias - more cases better than fewer - less variable observations are more reliable than more variable Scientific Method – self-correcting process for evaluating ideas with observations & analysis hypothesis  observation & testing  data collection  analyzing of results  reporting Systematic: in control, clear and specific Skepticism: not accepting truth even from facts without challenging it (Randi the magician, tested and debunked many psychic phenomena) Humility: seek truth w/o needing to be right; aware of vulnerability to error, surprises & perspectives Theory: principles built on observations and other facts that explain it, predicts it and its future behavior Hypothesis: testable prediction consistent with theory, data may support believed Replicating research: same essence of previous experiment, different participants and situations; findings show that effect/treatment extend to participants or circumstances Culture: behaviors, attitudes, values, and traditions shared through generations Statistics – organize, analyze, present, and interpret data; more accurate picture of data; valid conclusion Mode: highest, most common number Mean: avg, sum of numbers over amount of numbers large standard dev. Median: middle of data Range: difference from highest to lowest small standard dev. mean Standard deviation: calculated avg distance between numbers and mean Skewed (ie- income, rich) vs Normal distribution (grades, bellcurve, symmetrical) Statistic significance: statistic statement of how likely an obtained result occurred by chance Unit 2: Biology of Mind and Consciousness Plato: brain in the head was responsible for mind Aristotle: mind is in the heart Sherrington: named synapse cavity Gall: proposed phrenology (study of bumps on brain), bumps revealed mental abilities and character traits; incorrect theory, however right about localization of functions Pert & Snyder: radioactive transmitters in morphine to track its path Kosslyn & Koenig: neural networking, same answer to “why cities exist?” Moruzzi & Magoun: electrically stimulating reticular formation of cat, made awake & alert when severed Klüver & Bucy: removed amygdala from monkey, which then was extremely calm Olds & Milner: rat electrode; placed mistakenly on hypothalamus; kept returning to same place stimulated; Olds went on to locate other pleasure centers Fritsch & Hitzig: movement stimulation to back of frontal lobe (~ear to ear) (L or R response opposite) Forrester & Penfield: mapped motor cortex; most space occupied by specific and precise control Delgado: stimulated left motor cortex; right hand made fist, patient could not resist Anderson: speak for someone who can’t (ie stroke) McBurney: we only use 10% of our brain Phineas Gage: frontal lobe damage, personality Vegel & Bogen: epileptic seizures brain activity jump between L and R hemispheres Sperry, Myers, Gazzinga: splitting brain; severed corpus callosum on animals, no ill effects; quiz each Milner & Goodale: local woman D.F.; overcome by carbon monoxide, damage; no recognize objects visually, but could reach for them Becklen & Cervone: video of b&w bball, didn’t notice woman with umbrella; inattentional blindness Simmons & Chabris: gorilla and unicycle clown on campus; inattentional blindness Aserinsky: 8 yrs old, eye movement when awoken; had dream Dement: taped sleep deprived mans eyes open, flashing light every 6 sec; missed one, fell asleep Maas & Robbins: sleep improves athletic ability Coren: daylight savings, car accidents; more after lose hour spring than gain hour fall Freud: dreams are safety valve that discharges unacceptable feelings; Domhoff opposed Hobson & McCarley: activities and physiological process of the brain that leads to dreaming Nervous System – speedy electrochemical communication network, consists of nerve cells Central Nervous System (CNS): brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): sensory and motor neurons that connect CNS to rest of body Somatic Nervous System: controls skeletal muscles Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): controls glands and muscles of internal organs Sympathetic Nervous System: arouses body; activates energy in stressful enviro Parasympathetic Nervous System: calms body; conserves its energy Reflex: simple automatic response to sensory stimulus Nerves: bundled axons that form cables connecting the CNS with muscles, glands, and sense organs Sensory neurons: carry info from sensory receptors to CNS Motor neurons: carry info from CNS to muscles and glands Interneurons: within CNS, communicate & intervene b/w sensory inputs & motor outputs Neurons: nerve cell, basic block Cell body: life support center Myelin: fatty tissue, speeds impulse (*MS) Terminal bunds: form junctions; axon end Dendrites: receive info from other cells & conducts to cell body; listen Axon: passes message to other cells, muscles, & glands; selectively permeable; speak Action potential: brief electrical charge down axon Ions are exchanged (resting potential: synaptic fluid has +, neuron inner has –) Neuron fires  Gates open  +ive ions enter  Depolarizes  Gates of adjacent open *chain Refractory period: pause, where +ve ions are pumped outside so it can fire again Threshold: level of stimulation required to trigger neural impulse Signals: inhibitory – brake ; excitatory – accelerate Neurotransmitters: chemical messengers that go through synapse (area between axon tip of one neuron and the dendrite of other) and bind to receptor site Acetylcholine: enables muscle action, learning, and memory – if blocked, could cause paralysis (ie: poison– botox and curare) Dopamine: influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion Serotonin: affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal Norepinephrine: helps control alertness and arousal GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid): a major inhibitory neurotransmitter Glutamate: a major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory Reuptake: neurotransmitters reabsorptions by the sending neuron Antagonists: bind to receptors, effect blocks Opiates: (ie: morphine, heroin) – mood and pain; pleasure *Artificial opiates can cause naturally occurring endorphins to stop Endocrine System – the body’s slow chemical communication system; set of glands that secrete hormones in bloodstream Hormones: chemical messengers manufactured by endocrine glands, travel through bloodstream, and affect other tissues Adrenal glands: above kidneys; secrete hormones (epinephrine – adrenaline – and norepinephrine) to arouse body in times of stress (^ Sympathetic NS) Pituitary gland: most influential endocrine gland; under influence of hypothalamus (links nervous system & endocrine system via pituitary gland); regulates growth/controls other endocrine glands Lesions: brain tissue destruction, naturally or experimentally Scans *electrodes Electroencephalogram (EEG): amplified recording of electrical activity waves on brain surface Positron emission tomography (PET): visual display of brain activity that detect where radioactive form of glucose during certain tasks Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images of soft tissue – anatomy Functional MRI (fMRI): reveals blood flow and thus brain activity by comparing successive MRI – shows how brain functions Old Structure Brainstem: central core of brain; beginning of where spinal cord swells as enters skull; auto-survival Thalamus: pair of egg-like structures; sensory switchboard Medulla: base of brainstem; heartbeat and breathing Pons: controls movement Reticular formation: b/w ears; finger like network of neurons extending from spinal cord to thalamus; filters stimuli Cerebellum: process sensory input and coordinates movements output and balance; learning, memory; little brain rear of brainstem; alcohol impairs balance? Limbic System – below cerebral hemisphere; neural system; emotions and drives Amygdala: two lima-bean neural clusters; fear and aggression Hypothalamus: below thalamus; directs several maintenance activities (ie eat, drink, body temp); helps govern endocrine system via pituitary gland; emotion and reward; bodily maintenance Hippocampus: consolidation of memory and spatial navigating Cerebral Cortex: intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; ultimate control and info-processing center Glial cells (glia): cells in nervous system that support, nourish, & protect neurons; thinking & learning Brain Sections Frontal Lobes: behind forehead; speaking and muscle movements; making plans and judgments Parietal Lobes: at the top of head and toward rear sensory input for touch & body position Occipital Lobes: back of head; receive signals from visual fields Temporal Lobes: ~ above ears; auditory areas, each receiving info from opposite ears primarily Motor cortex: area at rear frontal lobe; controls voluntary movement Sensory cortex: area front of parietal lobes that register and process body touch & movement sensations Association areas: areas of cerebral cortex not involved in primary motor sensory functions; involved in higher mental functions, like learning, remembering, thinking, speaking Corpus Callosum: large band of neuro-fibers connecting the 2 hemispheres & carry messages between Split brain: condition resulting from surgery; isolates both hemispheres; cutting fibers between Plasticity: brains ability to change, esp during childhood, by reorganizing after damage; new pathways Neurogenesis: formation of new neurons Consciousness - our awareness of our environment and ourselves Cognitive Neuroscience: interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, language) Dual processing: we know more than we know; principle that info is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks Blindsight: condition in which someone can respond to a visual stimulus w/o consciously experiencing it Selective attention: focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus Inattentional blindness: fail to see visible objects when your attention is directed elsewhere Sleep – periodic, natural, easily reversible loss of consciousness; as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation Circadian rhythm: biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (temp, wakefulness) occurring on 24 hr cycle Alpha waves: relatively slow brain waves of an awake state Delta waves: large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep Stages REM: rapid eye movement, dreams; recurring sleep stage; vivid dreams; paradoxical sleep (muscles relax – except for minor twitches – but other body systems are active); rapid, saw toothed brain waves; rapid breathing, increased heart rate, sexual arousal; brain stem blocks signals leaving body relaxed; hard to awaken; motor cortex is active NREM-1: slow breathing; irregular brain waves; hallucinations (seeing something without external visual stimuli); false sensory experiences NREM-2: relax; begin; sleep spindles (rapid, rhythmic brain activity); ~20 min NREM-3: deep sleep, large slow delta waves; ~30 min - return to NREM-2 (for ~ half night) Morning light: activates light sensitive retinal proteins, signals the brain’s SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus), a pair of grain size rice 10000 cell clusters in hypothalamus; does its part by causing brain pineal glands to decrease production of sleep inducing hormone melatonin in morning and to increase it in the evening; artificial light delay sleep (25 hour day – blame light-bulb Edison) Sleep evolution Sleep protects: ancestors who didn’t wander in dark have more descendants Helps recuperate: restore/repair brain tissue; consciousness leave, brain construction workers come Restore/rebuild daily fading memories: strengthens & stabilizes neural memory traces (sleep on it) Feeds creative thinking: be smart and see connections; clued in Kekulé to benzene structure Supports growth in deep sleep: growth hormone released from pituitary gland; needed for muscle development Insomnia: recurring problems in falling/staying asleep Narcolepsy: sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks; sufferer may lapse into REM sleep, often at inopportune times; genes; absence of a hypothalamic that produces orexin (neurotransmitter linked to alertness) Sleep apnea: a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and momentary awakenings Night terror: NREM-3; sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; within 2 -3 hours of falling asleep; seldom remembered Sleep deprivation: increase: cortisol, ghrelin (hunger arouse); decrease: leptin (hunger surpress), immune cells REM rebound: tendency for REM sleep to increase after REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep Dreams – sequence of images, emotions, & thoughts; pass through sleepers mind; hallucinatory images, discontinuities, incongruities; dreamers delusional acceptance of content; difficulty remembering Why dream? Satisfy wishes: manifest content (events) was symbolic of latent content (underlying message) File away memories: sort and sift through day and memories Develop & preserve neural pathways: REM increases development Make sense of neural static: neural activation spreading upward from brainstem Cognitive development: parts of dreams are for maturation and cognitive development Unit 3: Behavior Genetics & Motivation Bouchard: studied identical twins reared apart Belyaev & Trut: foxs domesticated; 40 years and 45000 foxs; 5% calm male 20% calm female Pinker: no wonder emotions drives etc are common in culture, shaped by natural selection by evolution Hauser: direct harm doing was punished; still inside instincts Ralston: hiking, stuck in rock, cut off arm Mallory: why want to climb mt Everest, because its there Biederman and Vessel: identified brain mechanisms that reward us for acquiring information Keys: deprived 36 men of food, semi-starved; not interested in anything but food, body stabilized smaller Nordgren: people in a hot state easily recall these feelings and perceive them as driving forces Washburn & Cannon: swallowed balloon; stomach contractions when hungry Rozin: patients with amnesia offered meals; hunger has to do with time and memory Pingitore: weight discrimination; job interviews Brownell: trying to ban fast food near schools; tax on junk food etc Brannon & Brock: 511 – mathematics of sex x9 Blanchard: rh with more older brothers increase chance homo 2-6%; lh with more older brothers decreased chance homo 3-2% Levay: sections of hypothalamus in homo and hetero Dorner: hormones on sexuality in prenatal environment Leary: self esteem is a gauge at how loved and accepted we feel Williams: ostracism is the worst to do to someone Twenge: students told did bad, aggressive less empathetic etc Vaillant: studied men to end lives, only thing important in life are relationships Dunbar: ~150 meaningful fb relationships Behavior genetics: study of relative power & limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior Environment: every non-genetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us Chromosomes: threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain genes DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): complex molecule containing genetic info that makes up chromosome Genes: biochemical units of hereditary; make up chromosomes; DNA segments that synthesize proteins Genome: complete instructions on making organism; consists of all genetic material in organisms chromosomes Identical twins: twins who develop from a single – monozygotic – fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms Fraternal twins: twins who develop from separate – dizygotic – fertilized eggs; genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but share fetal environment Temperament: a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity Molecular Genetics: subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes Heritability: proportion of variation among the individuals that we can attribute to genes; heritability of a trait may vary, depending on range of populations and environments studied Interaction: interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (ie enviro) depends on another factor (such as heredity) Epigenetics: study of influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change Evolutionary psychology: study of evolution of behavior and mind, using principles of natural selection Homology: a similarity that exists between two species due to their common ancestry Analogy: any similarity that stems not from two different species because of some similarity in their habitats/lifestyles incoling a common characteristic independent of each other Natural selection: principle that, among range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Altruism: helping others Reciprocity theory: provides an account on how altruistic behavior arises; wired in; paid off in behavior that benefits you Kin selection theory: directed towards relatives for survival of genes Mutation: random error in gene replication; leads to change Gender: biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female Three main criticisms of the evolutionary explanation of human sexuality? 1) starts with an effect and works backwards to propose an explanation 2) unethical & immoral men could use such explanations to justify their behavior toward women 3) this explanation may overlook effects of cultural expectations and socialization Motivation: need or desire that energizes and directs behavior Perspectives: 1) Instinct theory: focuses on genetically predisposed behaviors; replaced by evolutionary 2) Drive reduction theory: focuses on how our inner pushes and external pulls interact a. Idea that physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need 3) Arousal theory: focuses on finding right level of stimulation 4) Hierarchy of needs: describes how some needs take priority over others; Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, must have physiological met Instinct: a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned Homeostasis: tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particulate level Incentives: a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior Glucose: form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides major source of energy for body tissues; when low we feel hunger Leptin: decreases hunger; fat cells Ghrelin: triggers hunger; stomach PYY: decreases hunger; digestive tract Orexin: triggers hunger; hypothalamus CCK: slows down eating behavior Insulin: controls glucose; pancreas; converts to stored fats Hypothalamus: responds to hormones and making appropriate actions Set point: an individuals weight thermostat is set; when body falls below, increased hunger and decreased metabolic rate act to restore lost weight Basal metabolic rate: body’s resting rate of energy expenditure Social facilitation: overeating in social environments; with others Unit bias: when offered larger portions, eat more; Geier French waistlines are smaller than Americans, Wansink offered icecreams – ate more with big bowl Food variety: dessert buffet, eat more than normal Sex: biological aspects of being male and female Gender: social construction of how we define maleness and femaleness Sexual arousal cycle: four stages of sexual responding described by Masters & Johnston; excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution Refractory period: resting period after orgasm during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm Sexual disorder: problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning Estrogen: sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amount by females than males and contributing to female sex characteristics; increase at ovulation in nonhuman mammals Testosterone: most important of male sex hormones; both males and females have it, but males more; stimulates growth of male organs and development of male sex characteristics. Sexual restraint: high intelligence, religious engagement, father presence, & service learning programs Sexual orientation: enduring sexual attraction toward members of either ones owns sex or the other sex Healthy balance on social networking? 1) monitor your time, reflect on it 2) monitor your feelings, how do you feel? 3) Hide your more distracting online friends, would I want to read my post? 4) Turn off devices, leave elsewhere; Willingham - distractions 5) Fast, go on an internet social media diet 6) Replenish focus on a nature walk Unit 4: Development William James: presumed that the newborn experiences a blooming, buzzing confusion Carolyn Rovee Collier: observed infant memory - capable of learning Wynn: showed 5 month olds numerically impossible outcomes, stared longer DeLoache, Uttal, Rosengren: scale errors in children - DeLoache mini stuffed dogs 2.5 and 3 yr olds Cohen: autism, boys more systematic Vygotsky: studied how child's mind feeds on language of social interaction Mary and Harry Harlow: monkey, blanket security not just fed by; attachment Lorenz: duckling imprint Ainsworth: responsive mothers, infants reaction Van den Boom: differently tempered 6-9 month - secured when responded by mother Ceausescu: Romania communist forbade absorption taxed <5 kids, 15:1 ratio Scarr: mothers to work ok Maccoby: positive correlation between negative behaviors and exceeded day care; true, home more tho Plotnik: elephant, she's happy and she knows it Jung: we reach backward into our parents, forward into our children, and through their children into a future we will never see, but about which we must therefore care Hall: believed gap between social dependence and biological maturity is storm and stress Haidt: believed most of our morality was in our gut Greene: emotional neuro responses to kill one save five or save five kill one Damon: achieve purpose key in adolescence Csikszentmihalyi and Hunter: tested teen beeper, unhappiest when alone happiest with friends Aronson: most excluded teens suffer in silence Developmental psychology: the branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan; focuses on three major issues: nature and nurture, continuity and stages, stability and change Stage theories Jean Piaget: cognitive development Lawrence Kohlberg: moral development Erik Erikson: psychosocial development; q’s for childhood intelligence; kids reason differently Zygote: fertilized egg; it enters at two week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo Embryo: developing human organism from ~ two weeks after fertilization through the second month Fetus: the developing human organism from nine weeks after conception to birth Teratogens: agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS): physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking; in severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial mis-proportions Epigenetic effect: leaving chemical marks on DNA that switch genes abnormally on route Habituation: decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation; as infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wands and they look away sooner Maturation: biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively in influenced by experience Cognition: all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Schema: a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information Assimilation: interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas Accommodation: adapting our current understanding [schemas] to incorporate new information Piaget’s stages: Sensorimotor: [birth to 2] experiencing the world through senses and actions Object permanence: the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived Stranger anxiety: the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning at about 8 Preoperational: [about 2 to about 6 or 7] using words & images; using intuitive rather than logical reasoning; use language but does not comprehend mental operations of solid logic Pretend Play Egocentrism: child's difficulty taking another point of view Concrete operational: [about 7 to 11] cognitive development, gain mental operations to think logically about concrete events; grasping analogies and performing arithmetical operations Conservation: the principle [Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning] that properties such as mass, volume, & number remain same despite changes in the forms of objects Mathematical transformations Theory of mind: people's ideas about their own and others' mental states; about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict Autism: a disorder that appears in childhood and this marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others states of mind Formal operational stage: [12 through adulthood] cognitive development, people begin to think logically about abstract concepts and reasoning Abstract logic Potential for mature moral reasoning Attachment: an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation Critical period: an optimal period early in life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development Imprinting: process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life Basic trust: according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers Erikson’s stages: Infancy (<1): Trust vs Mistrust… if needs are met, infant develops basic trust Toddlerhood (1-3): Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt… exercise will and do things themselves or doubt their abilities Preschool (3-6): Initiative vs Guilt… initiate tasks and carry out plans or feel guilty about efforts to be independent Elementary school (6-puberty): Competence vs Inferiority… pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or feel inferior Adolescence (teens to mid 20s): Identity vs Role confusion… refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity or they become confused about who they are Young adulthood (20s to early 40s): Intimacy vs Isolation… struggle to form close relationships and to gain capacity for intimate love or feel socially isolated Middle adulthood (40s to 60s): Generativity vs Stagnation… discover sense of contributing to world, usually through family or work, or feel lack of purpose Late adulthood (late 60s and up): Integrity vs Despair… reflection on his/her life, an older adult may feel sense of satisfaction or failure Adolescence: the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence Puberty: the period of sexual maturation, in which a person becomes capable of reproducing Primary sex characteristics: the body structures [ovaries, testes, and external genitalia] that make sexual reproduction possible Secondary sex characteristics: non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair Menarche: the first menstrual period Identity: our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescents task is to solidify the sense of self by testing and integrating various roles Social identity: the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "who am I?" That comes from our group membership Intimacy: in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood Emerging adulthood: for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid 20s, bridging gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood Kohlbergs level of moral thinking: Per invention mortality (before 9): self interest, obey rules to avoid punishment/gain solid rewards Conventional morality (early adolescence): uphold laws & rules to gain social approval/maintain social order Postconventional morality (adolescence and beyond): actions reflect belief in basic rights and self defined ethical principle Authoritarian: strict and obedience Permissive: few demands, little punish Authoritative: both, reason for rule Unit 5: Perception and Learning Sellers: prosopagnosia (face blindness) Fechner: studied faint stimuli awareness - called them our absolute threshold Greenwald: self help subliminal recording - only worked because they believed so Proffitt: demonstrated power of emotions in other experiments in regards to our perceptions Witt and Proffitt: softball looked bigger when hitting it Hubel and Wiesel: Nobel prize for work on feature detectors (specialized neurone in occipital line visual cortex that receive info from ganglion cells); respond to angles, monsters, edges Molyneux: blind from birth and can see Stratton: invented and wire for eight days inverted glasses; retinas image Pavlov: classical conditioning, objective science Watson agreed, this view made what he called behaviorism Watson and Rayner: little Albert feared animals (rats) conditioned Skinner: Skinner box, animal with lever for reward and recorder of response Gibson and Walk: model of cliff, toddlers preceptions White: parapsychology, never took off Storm: evidence of parapsychology Hyman: parapsychology, not existent, needs a positive theory Bem: a psychic is an actor playing the role of a psychic; had experiments that showed prediction of future events - many says bias Sensation: the process by which are sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment Perception: the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events Bottom up processing: analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brains integration of sensory information Top down processing: information processing guided by higher level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations Transduction: conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brain can interpret Psychophysics: the study of relationships between physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them Absolute threshold: the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time Signal detection theory: a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus [signal] amid background stimulation [noise]. Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on the person's experience, expectations, motivation, and alertness Subliminal: below ones absolute threshold for conscious awareness Priming: the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response Difference threshold: the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a "just noticeable difference" [or jnd] Weber's law: the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a given percentage [rather than a given amount] Sensory adaptation: diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation Perpetual set: a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another Wavelength: the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission Hue: the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, and so forth Intensity: the amount of energy in a light or soundwave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the waves amplitude Pupil: the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters Iris: a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening Lens: the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina Retina: the light-sensitive inner surface of eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information Accommodation: the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina Cornea: protects the eye and bends light provide focus Fovea: the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster Rods: retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond Cones: retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations Optic nerve: the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain Blind spot: the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there Feature detectors: nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement Parallel processing: the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brains natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by- step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem-solving; colour, motion, form, depth Young-Helmholtz trichromatic [3 color] theory: the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors - one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue - which, when stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any color Opponent-process theory [Hering]: the theory that opposing retinal processes [red-green, yellow- blue, white-black] enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green Gestalt: an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes Figure-ground: the organization of the visual field into objects [the figures] that stand out from their surroundings [the ground] Grouping: the perpetual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups Depth perception: the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that stroke the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance Visual class: a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals Binocular cues: depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of two eyes Retinal disparity: a binocular cue for perceiving depth: by comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance - the greater disparity [difference] between two images, the closer the object Monocular cues: death queues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone Phi phenomenon: an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession Perceptual constancy: perceiving objects as unchanging [having consistent shapes, sizes, brightness, and color] even as illumination and rental images change Color constancy: perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object Brightness constancy: brightness same even when illumination changes Relative luminance: amount of light object reflects relative to surroundings Shape constancy: door being a door whether open or closed Size constancy: car still a car two blocks away Perceptual adaptation: in vision, the ability to adjust toy an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field Extra sensory perception (ESP): the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input; includes telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition Parapsychology: the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis Magician Randi offered reward for a psychic to step forward with proof, as have many groups, as of now no one has Learning: the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behavior Associative learning: learning that certain events occur together. The events that may be two stimuli [as in classical conditioning] or a response and it's consequences [as in operant conditioning] Stimulus: any event or situation that evokes a response Cognitive learning: the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language Classical conditioning: a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events Behaviorism: the view that psychology [1] should be in objective science that [2] studies behavior with a reference to mental processes. Plus feature psychologists today agree with [1] but not with [2] Respondent behavior: behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus Neutral stimulus [NS]: in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning Unconditioned response [UR]: in classical conditioning, an unlearned, actually occurring response [such as salivation] to an unconditioned stimulus [US] [such as food in the mouth] Conditioned response [CR]: in classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral [but now condition] stimulus [CS] Conditioned stimulus [CS]: in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus [US], comes to trigger a conditioned response [CR] Acquisition: in classical conditioning, the initial state, when one links and a neutral stimulation and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a response Higher-order conditioning: procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a neutral stimulus, creating a second [often weaker] conditioned stimulus. - ie, an animal that has learned that the tone predicts food might then learn that light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone [also called second order conditioning] Extinction: the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus [US] does not follow a conditioned stimulus [CS]; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance, after a pause, and extinguished conditioned response Generalization: the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses Discrimination: in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not single and unconditioned stimulus Operant conditioning: a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher Law of effect: Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely Operant chamber: in operant conditioning research, the chamber [also known as a skinner box] containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animals rate of bar pressing or key pecking Reinforcement: in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Shaping: an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior Positive reinforcement: increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers; a positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response Negative reinforcement: increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli; a negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after response, strengthens a response [note: negative reinforcement is not punishment] Primary reinforcer: any innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need Condition reinforcer: a stimulus that gains it's reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer Reinforcement schedule: a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced Continuous reinforcement: reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs Partial [intermittent] reinforcement: reinforcing response only part of the time; results and slower accusation of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement Fixed ratio schedule: in operant conditioning, reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses Variable ratio schedule: in operant conditioning, reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredicted number of responses Fixed interval schedule: in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed Variable interval schedule: in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals Punishment: an event that tends to decrease the behavior that it follows Operant behavior: behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences Unit 6: Memory Sherehevskii: could remember much more - 70 digits - whole conversations Ebbinghaus: list of syllables - speed of relearning; we remember more than we can recall Atkinson & Shiffrin: How memories are processed; three step model; however today's research recognize other ways long term stored 1. Record to be remembered information as a fleeting sensory memory 2. Process information into short-term memory, where we encode it through rehearsal 3. Information moves into long-term memory for later retrieval Baddeley: challenged ^, Working memory, includes visual and auditory rehearsal; hypothetical central executives [manager] focuses attention and pulls information from long-term memory to make sense of new information Sperling: demonstrated iconic memory - flashing nine letters at once, not remembered as much as rows at a time Miller: proposed that short-term memory can retain approximately seven bits L and M Peterson: gave three consonant groups, prevent rehearsals, more time passed less recall Bower: presented words either randomly or grouped in categories; if organized into categories, recall where is improved Bower & Morrow: likened our mind to theatre directors; given raw script, imagine final product; we remember what we encoded not literal stuff Bahrick: he and family foreign-language word translations for a long period of time; longer the space between practice, better retention after five years; forgetting will be drastic then level off Roediger and Karpicke: Repeated self testing, called testing effect; better practice retrieval than reread material Roediger: numbers into pocket, passwords Roediger and McDermott: asked to recognize specific words from a long list, false remembering and nonpresented similar word; sweet candy honey taste; typically remember the gist of the word rather than the actual word Craik and Tulving: flash words at people, asked a question of different processing, rapidly answer simple questions; deeper processing yielded more memory than shallower processing Bransford and Johnson: laundry passage; read a paragraph and remembered it more when it had meaning H and T Noice: actors learn lines by understanding the flow of meaning Sherlock Holmes: a mistake to think the mind is limitless - not true Kandel and Schwartz: Observed synaptic changes during the learning in sea slug; could be classically conditioned with electric shock to withdraw when squirted with water; before and after conditioning, neural connections were observed; release more serotonin to certain neurons- become more efficient at transmitting signals *LTP Hull: blind; cannot see background in memories; our memories are often activated without our awareness Collier: Familiar context can activate memories even in three month olds; crib mobile, infant kick more when tested in same crib and same bumper then when in different contact AJ Jill Price: memory like a movie; good to not remember everything HM Henry Molaison: suffered from anterograde amnesia; 55 years after brain surgery to stop seizures, unable to form new conscious memory; his neuroscientist Corkin has worked with him long he doesn't know who she is; could recall past, not form new memories Sachs: had patient Jimmie anterograde amnesia; ask him questions, he would be confused; can learn things, but not know that they learn things Jenkins and Dallenbach: Information presented in the hour before sleep is protected from fading; good time to commit information to memory; not in seconds before sleep Freud: repress memories that are painful/unacceptable to minimize anxiety Loftus: car accident reconstruction; eyewitness not reliable Poole and Lindsay: source amnesia among preschoolers; interact with Mr. science, read stories about Mr. science, later told the stories actually happened them Brown and Marsh: intriguingly to introduce déjà vu in laboratory; symbols on computer screen, later think they're familiar Ceci and Bruck: children's memory can be moulded a great degree; dolls and exam from physician McNally and Geraerts: Contend that victims of most childhood sexual abuse do not repress abuse- simply stop devoting thought and emotion to it; letting go of memory is most likely when 1) it was strange, uncomfortable, confusing 2) only once/few times 3) have not spent time thinking about it Memory: the persistence of learning over time. The storage and retrieval of information Recall: a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill in the blank test Recognition: a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test Relearning: a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again Information-processing models: analogies that compare human memory to computers memory Encoding: the process of information into the memory system-for example, by extracting meaning Storage: the retention of encoded information overtime Retrieval: the process of getting information out of memory storage Sensory memory: the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system Short-term memory: activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as seven digits of the phone number while dialling, before the information is stored or forgotten Long-term memory: the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences Working mem
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