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Psychology Exam Review .docx

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PSYC 1000
Dan Meegan

Module 11 Behavior Genetics: - Individual differences  Due to genetic differences - Mutations not differentially affected by natural selection KE Family: - English Family – half suffer from a speech & language disorder - KE Phenotype – compare affected to unaffected  Speech o Repetition  Esp. multi-syllabic non-words (sastelgint)  Orofacial motor control o Open mouth wide & stick out tongue  Language o Grammar problems  Structural/functional brain abnormalities - Why non-words?  Affected KE adults learned to compensate by memorizing words  Non-words have not been memorized - KE Genotype  Genetic or Environmental? o Why affect one sibling & not another? o 53% KE; less than 3% of population  Single gene or multiple genes? o Multiple: varying degrees of disability o Single: disability or no-disability  Autosomal or Sex o Males & females equally affected  Dominant or Recessive? o Affected children only had one affected parent - Finding the mutated gene  Genome scans of affected and unaffected KE family members o Pointed to broad locus on chromosome 7  Unrelated person with similar disorder o Break in chromosome 7 in middle of KE locus o Break disrupted gene FOXP2  Analyze FOXP2 in affected KE o Revealed mutation - Interpreting Gene-Behavior link  FOXP2 is transcription factor that regulates gene expression during brain development (esp. motor control centers)  Why is KE disorder specific to speech, mouth control, & language? o Clues from other species… - FOXP2 in other species  Songbirds o Expression associated with song learning  Echolocating bats o FOXP2 different than in non-echolocating  Mice o Knockouts have reduced vocalizations - FOXP2 & language evolution?  Human version different than chimpanzee  Neanderthal o DNA extracted from bones (cave in Spain) o FOXP2 same as humans Evolutionary Psychology: - Universal commonalities  Due to genetic similarities - Mutations that conferred a reproductive advantage to all Reciprocal Altruism: - A cynical view of human nature - Help those in need and they are obligated to return favour when you are in need - Do not help someone who has failed to reciprocate in the past - Consequences for human behavior:  Important to be recognized for deeds  “Cheater” detection & punishment (the guys who NEVER picks up the tab)  Important to keep track of who’s done what for whom (gossip)  Uncomfortable to be “in debt” (resenting generous people) Module 12 How does experience influence development?: - Experience and brain development  Rats living in an “enriched” environment (more social interaction and physical play) experienced a greater growth in brain size and complexity than those rats living in an “impoverished” environment - Brain development means growth and pruning  To make our brain pathways work better, the unused are “pruned” away  This means that if certain abilities are not used, they will fade Cultural Influences: - Culture refers to the patterns of ideas, attitudes, values, lifestyle habits, and traditions shared by a group of people and passed on to future generations - Culture is not just an influence on our nature, but it is also part of our nature. Human form not only relationships, but culture - Culture and the self: individualism and collectivism  Individualist cultures value independence. They promote personal ideals, strengths, and goals, pursued in competition with others, leading to individual achievement and finding a unique identity  Collectivist culture value interdependence. They promote group and societal goals and duties, and blending in with group identity, with achievement attributed to mutual support - Similarities across groups  Although these are cultural difference, the differences within any group are usually greater than the differences between groups Individualism Collectivism Independent (identity from individual traits) Interdependent (identity from belonging) Discover and express one’s uniqueness Maintain connections, fit in, perform role Me – personal achievement and fulfillment; Us – group goals and solidarity; social rights and liberties; self esteem responsibilities and relationships; family duty Change reality Accommodate to reality Defined by individuals (self-based) Defined by social networks (duty-based) Many, often temporary or casual; confrontation Few, close and enduring; harmony valued acceptable Behavior reflects one’s personality and attitudes Behavior reflects social norms and roles Gender similarities & differences: - Gender refers to the physical, social, and behavioral characteristics that are culturally associated with male and female roles and identity  Some of these traits may be genetic differences; other role differences may be nurtured by culture - Brain Differences  During the fourth and fifth month of pregnancy, sex hormones bathe the fetal brain  In adulthood, women have thicker area in part of the frontal lobes that help with verbal fluency  There are also differences in the amygdala, hippocampus, and ratio of cell bodies to axons - Gender role: the behaviors expected of people related to their identity as men and women - Gender identity: one’s sense of whether one is male and female, including a sense of what it means to be that gender - Gender Differences:  Biological: woman enter puberty, live longer, and have more fat and less muscle  Mental and Behavioral Health: o Women are more likely to have depression, anxiety, or eating disorders o Men are more likely to have autism, ADHD, and antisocial personality disorder  Gender and Aggression: o Men behave more aggressively than women, and are more likely to behave in ways that harm others o This difference applies to physical aggression rather than verbal or relational aggression  Gender and Social Communication: men and women use communication differently: o Men state their opinions and solutions; speak about things and action o Women seek input and explore relationships; women speak about people and feelings  Gender and Social Connections: both men and both women turn to women when they want someone to talk to, seeking the “tend and befriend” response or better listening o In general, women change roommates more often o Women tend to have stronger ties to friends and family o Women are often more involved with religion The nurture of gender: Our culture: - Although biologically influenced, gender is also socially constructed. What biology initiates, culture accentuates.  Social learning theory: we learn gender role behavior by imitation, and by rewards and punishments and shape our behavior  Gender schemas: the cognitive frameworks for developing concepts of “male” and “female”; these frameworks guide our observations  Gender typing: the instinct which drives some children to fit into traditional gender roles Module 13 Continuity & Stages: - Continuity: development is gradual and continuous  Example: riding an escalator - Stages:  Extreme view: o Psychological development occurs in a series of abrupt, age-linked stages (caterpillar -> butterfly)  Modest View: o Serial: development tends to happen in order  Ex. Reading can’t happen until letter-sound correspondence is understood o Age-linking: flexible & experience-dependent  Ex. Reading age depends on when taught letter-sound correspondence o “Abrupt”:  old mistakes might still happen, but with much less frequency Stability & Change: - Stability: provides our identity; it enables to depend on others and be concerned about the healthy development of the children in our lives - Change: trust in our ability to change gives hope for a brighter future; it motivates our concerns about present influences and lets us adapt and grow with experience Prenatal Development: 1. Zygote: the fertilized egg (conception -> 2 weeks) 2. Embryo: the developing human organism from 2 weeks -> 8 weeks 3. Fetus: the developing human organism from 9 weeks -> birth The Competent Newborn:  newborn babies seem to have been pre-conditioned during the mothers pregnancy to already know how get food  They have preferences (turns toward smell of own mother)  Focuses on the face first, not the body Module 14: Jean Paiget:  Cognitive Development o Children make mistakes  Mistakes are age-dependent  Mistakes tell us where they are developmentally (knowledge and skills) o Schemas are necessary to make sense of our experiences o Assimilation: interpreting new experiences using existing schemas o Schemas accommodate new information provided by our experience        Piaget’s 4 Stages Developmental Typical Age Range Description of Stage Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 years Sensorimotor: -Object permanence Experiencing the world -Stranger anxiety through senses and actions About 2 years to about 6 Preoperational: -Pretend play or 7 years Representing things with -Egocentrism words and images; using intuitive rather than logical reasoning About 7 to 11 years Concrete operational: -Conservation Thinking logically about -Mathematical concrete events; grasping transformations concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations About 12 through adult Formal operational: -Abstract logic hood Abstract reasoning -Potential for mature moral reasoning  Piaget’s Legacy: o Identified cognitive milestones  Sequences confirmed cross-culturally o Appreciation for cognitive development and what kids are (not) capable of Attachment: a powerful survival impulse that keeps infants close to their caregivers  Body Contact: (harlow’s monkeys) o Much parent-infant emotional communication occurs via touch o Human attachment also consists of one person providing another with a secure base from which to explore and a safe-haven when distressed  Our secure base and save haven shift as we mature  Familiarity o In many animals attachments based on familiarity form during a critical period (certain events must take place to facilitate proper development) o Imprinting: the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life  Children do not imprint  Erik Erikson: believed that securely attached children approach life with a sense of basic trust – a sense that the world is predictable and trustable. o Theorized that infants blessed with sensitive, loving caregivers form a lifelong attitude of trust rather than fear.  Attachment style: associated with motivation o Securely attached people show less fear and a greater drive to achieve o Insecurely attached (deprived) people show anxious or avoidant tendencies  Helps groups detect or escape danger Module 40 Sigmund Freud: a psychoanalytic psychologist; he created theories that view personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences  Psychoanalysis: o Nurture plays a significant role in personality development o Determinism:  The underlying bases of our personality determine our behavior  Thus every act is revealing o First theory to emphasize that the unconscious mine was a significant influence on personality  Levels of Mind: o Conscious:  Relatively small aspect of personality  Attempts to repress the unconscious o Preconscious:  Unconscious but accessible to conscious o Unconscious:  Relatively larger part of personality  Influences behavior without our awareness  Dynamic interaction of 3 systems: o Id  Unconscious  Nature: Biological drives to seek pleasure (esp. sex) and act aggressively  Pleasure principle: immediate gratification o Ego  Largely conscious  Develops through positive childhood  Reality Principle: managing the id’s drive for pleasure, given real-world constraints o Superego  Largely conscious  Develops later & guided by cultural norms  Conscience: how we ought to behave Personality differences are due to the differences in the way the 3 systems interact  Personality Development o Id: innate, biological drives o Ego: from the birth through adolescence o Superego: 4-5 years through adolescence o Young children: immediate gratification; no sense of right vs wrong o Adulthood: delayed gratification; fully developed morality.  Psychosexual Stages: Freud – stage theory of personality development o Stages distinguished by erogenous zone that is the focus of id o Each stage characterized by conflicting tendencies o Conflicts usually resolved  Ex., via repression of id by ego o If these conflicts are unresolved, then they could surface as adult pathology… Stage Focus Oral (0-18 Pleasure centers on the mouth – sucking, biting, chewing months) Anal (18-36 Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping month) with demands for control Phallic (3-6 Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual years) feelings Latency (6 to A phase of dormant sexual feelings puberty) Genital Maturation of sexual interests (puberty on)  Fixation o Id deprived of pleasure during stage  Ex. weaned early during oral stage o Fixation at deprived stage o Corresponding adult abnormal behavior  Ex. Helplessness, anger, or maladaptive need for oral gratification  Defense Mechanisms o Anxiety results when ego struggles to manage id & sugerego o Ego has defense mechanisms to reduce or redirect anxiety…  Repression  Regression  Reaction formation  Projection  Rationalization  Displacement  Denial Accessing Unconscious Processes:  Projective test: a personality test, such as the Rorschach, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics o Rorschach inkblot test: the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots; seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyze their interpretations of the blots  Lack of strong evidence of effectiveness Modern views on psychoanalysis: today’s psychodynamic theories still rely on the interviewing that Freud used, and they still tend to focus on childhood experiences and attachments, unresolved conflicts, and unconscious influences.  Unlikely to dwell on fixation at any psychosexual stage, or the idea that resolution of sexual issues is the basis of our personality Module 42: The Big Five Personality Factors: Disorganized Organized Careless Careful Impulsive Conscientiousness Disciplined Ruthless Soft-Hearted Suspicious Trusting Uncooperative Agreeableness Helpful Calm Anxious Secure Insecure Self-satisfied Neuroticism Self-pitying Practical Imaginative Prefers routine Prefers variety Conforming Openness Independent Retiring Sociable Sober Fun-loving Reserved Extraversion Affectionate Are traits stable & enduring?: one’s distinctive mix of traits doesn’t change much over the life span. However, everyone in adulthood becomes:  More conscientious and agreeable  Less extraverted, neurotic/unstable, and less open (imaginative, flexible) Social-Cognitive Theories:  *Social-cognitive perspective: views behavior as influenced by interaction between people’s traits (including their thinking) and their social context  Reciprocal Determinism: proposes that our personalities are shaped by the interaction of our personal traits, our environment and our behaviors  Personal Control: the extent to which we perceive control over our environment o Locus of Control: our perception of where the seat of power over our lives is located  Internal locus of control: we feel that we are in charge of ourselves and our circumstances  Too much leads to blaming self for bad events or the illusion we can prevent bad events  External locus of control: we picture that a force outside of ourselves controls our fate  To much leads to loss in initiative, lose motivation to achieve, anxiety over potential future events, don’t bother developing will power o Self Control  The ability to control impulses and delay gratification, sometimes called ‘willpower’  A finite resource, an expenditure of brain energy, which is replenished but can be depleted short-term  With practice it can be improved  Apparent individual differences in this trait in childhood  Marshmallow study, kids who didn’t eat later had more success in school and socially o Learned Helplessness vs. Personal Control: most creatures try to escape or end a painful situation. But experience can make us lose hope.  Learned Helplessness: declining help oneself after repeated attempts to do so have failed  1. Uncontrollable bad events  2. Perceived lack of control  Generalized helpless behavior o Optimism vs. Pessimism: we can be optimistic or pessimistic in various ways:  Prediction: we can expect the best or the worst. At the extremes, we can get ourselves overconfident or simply depressed or anxious about the future  Focus of attention: we can focus on what we have (half full) or what we don’t have (half empty)  Attribution of intent: we can assume that people meant to hurt us or that they were having a bad day  Valuation: we can assume that we or others are useless or that we are lovable, valuable  Potential for change: we can assume that bad things can’t be changed, or have hope o Evaluating Behavior in Situations  Donald Trump as the host of “The Apprentice” prided himself on assessing executive skills in others  Assessments based on performance in such simulations predict future job performance better than interviews and questionnaires  Donald Trump as s politician could not understand why more people didn’t join his candidacy, his debates, his “birther” theories Exploring the self:  Self: in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions  Spotlight effect: overestimating others’ noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders  Self-esteem: one’s feelings of high or low self-worth  Self-serving bias: a readiness to perceive oneself favorably  Narcissism: excessive sel
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