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Psychology midterm review.docx

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PSYC 1000
Dan Meegan

Functionalism: considers the evolved functions of our thoughts and feelings. Encouraged explorations of down-to-earth emotions, memories, willpower, habits, and moment-to-moment streams of consciousness. (James) Behaviorism: the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2). (Skinner) Cognitive: the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language) Humanistic psychology: historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people. (Maslow) Nature Nurture Issue: the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to development of psychological traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture. Descartes: some ideas are innate. Plato: Ideas such as “the good” and beauty are inborn. Charles Darwin: Some traits, behaviors, and instincts are part of the nature of the species. Levels Of Analysis: the differing complementary views for analyzing any given phenomenon. Biopsychosocial Approach: an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social cultural levels of analysis.  The deep level, Biology: genes, brain, neuro-transmitters, survival, reflexes, and sensation.  In the middle, Psychology: thoughts, emotions, moods, choices, behaviors, traits, motivations, knowledge, and perceptions.  The outer level, Environment: social influences, culture, education, and relationships. Perspective Focus Sample Question Subfields using this Neuroscience How the body and How do pain Biological, brain enable messages travel cognitive, clinical emotions, from the hand to memories and brain? sensory experiences Evolutionary How the natural How does Biological, selection of traits evolution influence developmental, has promoted the behavior social survival of genes tendencies? Behavior Genetics How our genes To what extent are Personality, and our psychological developmental environment traits products of influence our our genes? individual difference Psychodynamic How behavior How can Clinical, springs from someone’s counseling, unconscious disorders be personality drives and explained by conflicts childhood trauma Behavioral How we learn How do we learn Clinical, observable to fear particular counseling, responses objects or industrial- situations organizational Cognitive How we encode, How do we use Cognitive, clinical, process, store, information in counseling, and retrieve remembering? industrial- information organizational Social-cultural How behavior and How do we differ Developmental, thinking vary as products of the social, clinical, across situations environment counseling and cultures Hindsight bias: the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. Overconfidence: as humans we tend to think we know more that we do. Perceiving Order in Random Events: in our eagerness to make sense of our world we are prone to perceive patterns. Random sequences don’t often look random and are often over interpreted. Science VS Intuition: The layperson has years of experience observing others’ behavior and own mental states which gives him/her an intuition about things. Scientific study is necessary because intuition is usually wrong. Critical Thinking: thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. Example: Harvard President says fewer females have “innate ability” in science, engineering and mathematics. Research Basic Purpose How What is Weakness Method Conducted Manipulated Descriptive To observe Do case Nothing No control of and record studies, variables; naturalistic single cases observation, may be or surveys misleading. Correlational To detect Collect data Nothing Does not naturally on two or specify cause occurring more and effect relationships; variables; no to assess how manipulation well one variable predicts another Experimental To explore Manipulate The Sometimes cause and one or more independent not feasible; effect factors; use variable(s) results may random not generalize assignment to other context; not ethical to manipulate certain variable. Neuron: a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system Dendrites: a neuron’s bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct the impulses toward the cell body Axon: the neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands Myelin sheath: covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses Action potential: a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon Threshold: the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse Synapse: the junction between the axon top of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap. Neurotransmitter: chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitter travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse. Reuptake: a neurotransmitter’s reabsorption by the sending neuron Nervous system: the body’s speedy electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral (the sensory and motor neurons, connects the CNS to the rest of the body) and central nervous systems (brain and spine). Electroencephalogram (EEG): reads residual electricity activity in the brain, used to study sleep, epilepsy. PET (positron emission tomography) scan: introduces radioactive tracers into the brain that are picked up on a visual display MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. fMRI (Functional MRI): reveals brain activity instead of structures. Brainstem: the oldest part of the central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions. Medulla: the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing. Thalamus: the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla. Reticular Formation: a nerve network that travels through the brainstem and plays and important role in controlling arousal Cerebellum: the “little brain” at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance. Limbic system: neural system and located below the cerebral hemispheres. Coordinates emotions such as fear and aggression, basic drives such as hunger and sex Amygdala: consists of two lima bean-sized neural clusters, helps process emotions, especially fear and aggression. Hippocampus: processes conscious, episodic memories, works with the amygdala to form emotionally charged memories. Motor cortex: an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements Sensory cortex: area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations. Association cortex: areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking. Brain Plasticity: the brain’s ability to change, especially during childhood by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience. Split Brain: a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain’s two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them. Drive-Reduction Theory: the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need Homeostasis: a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular. Drive- Need (food, Drive reducing (hunger, behaviours water) thirst) (eating, drinking) Glucose: the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger. Set point: the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight. The Appetite Hormones:  Insulin is secreted by the pancreas and controls blood glucose  Ghrelin is secreted by an empty stomach and sends “I’m hungry” signals to the brain  Orexin is secreted by the hypothalamus, also triggers hunger  Leptin is secreted by fat cells, and PYY from the digestive tract both decrease hunger Basal Metabolic Rate: the body’s resting rate of energy expenditure Overeating: can be stimulated by factors such as food variety. When we are in the presence of others, our natural tendencies are amplified (called social facilitation, helps explain why after a celebration we tend to over eat) Obesity: pretty much bad stuff happens, depression, and stuff Consciousness: our awareness of our environment and ourselves Dual Processing: the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks. Blindsight: a condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it Selective Attention: the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus Thresholds:  Absolute Thresholds: the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.  Difference Thresholds: the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the times. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference. Subliminal: stimulus so weak or brief that, although received by senses, cannot be perceived consciously  Subliminal messages are hidden in media to try and change attitude or behavior Top-down processing: information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations. Bottom-up processing: analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory Top-Down Influences:  Perceptual Set: a set of mental tendencies and assumptions that greatly affects what we perceive  Context  Emotion and Motivation The Eye (Figures 18.3 and 18.4):  Pupil: the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters  Iris: a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina  Lens: the transparent structure behind the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening  Retina: the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information  Accommodation: the process by which the eye’s lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina  Rods: retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral a
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