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University of Guelph
PSYC 1000
Anne Bergen

Chapter nine. Thought, Language, and Intelligence The Native and Structure of Language • Language consists of a system of symbols and rules for combining these symbols in ways that can produce an almost infinite of possible messages and meanings • The linguistic features of displacement refers to the face that the past, future, and imaginary events and objects that are not physically present can be represented and communicated through language, Language is a. symbols b. has structure c. generative • surface and deep structure consists of the way symbols are combines within a given language - rules for this are called syntax (rules of grammar) • deep structure refers to the underlying meanings of the combines symbols - rules for this are called semantics Hierarchy of Language • Phonemes- smallest units of sound that are recognized as separate in a given language ( th, and sh) • morphemes- smallest unites of meaning in language ( hat, sick, -ed, est) Acquiring a Language • biological foundations • children, despite limited thinking skills, begin to master language early w/o any formal instruction • all languages have a common underlying deep structure • and six months, begin to lose ability to perceive differences in sounds of other languages. beginning of native tongue • language sensitive period: infancy - puberty. these taught language before puberty could learn, those taught after could not • sex differences • brocay area ( left hemisphere; frontal lobe ) involved in speech preduction • wernickeʼs area ( rear of temporal lobe ) involved in speech comprehension men- left H strokes are more likely to show severe aphasic symptoms woment- left H stores, language functions are more likely to be spared ( language shared w/ right H ) Social Learning Process- plays a center role in acquiring a language. By two years old, children utter 1 work sentences called helegraphic speech that consist of a noun and ad adverb Bilingualism: learning a second language • learned best when it is learned during the sensitive period of childhood. • One concern! mixing languages. but children begin to differentiate their two languages by two years of age Different Patterns of language processing- those who were bilingual before age 10 used the same cortical area for 2 different languages while who who were later in life, showed brain activity in different areas Linguistics influences on thinking - Linguistic Benjamin Lee Whorf suggested the linguistic relativity hypotheses, that language not only influences but determines what we are capable of thinking Extreme ^ - rather language can influence how we think of and how we encode information affecting perception and memory Propositions thought- Verbal sentences in mind express a prosposition of statement imaginal thought- images we can “see”, “hear”, or “feel” motoric thought- mental representations of motor movement Concepts an
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