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PSYC 1000 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Axon Terminal, Neuroglia, Multiple Sclerosis

Course Code
PSYC 1000
Dan Meegan
Study Guide

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neurons - cell found in nervous system, responsible for sending and receiving messages throughout the
cell body - part of neutron containing the nucleus that houses the cell's genetic material
dendrites - branches radiating from cell body that receive messages from other cells and transmit them
to the rest of the cell
axon - transport info in the form of electrochemical reactions from the cell body to the rest of the
neurotransmitters - chemical messengers, allowing neutrons to communicate with each other
sensory neurons - receive info from senses and bring info to brain
motor neurons - carry messages away from brain to muscles
glial cells - specialized nerve cells that mount immune responses in brain, remove waste and synchronize
neuron activity
myelin - fatty sheath insulating axons which increases speed and efficiency of neural communication
multiple sclerosis - disease where the immune system doesn't recognize myelin and attacks it
resting potential - relatively stable state during which the cell is not transmitting messages
electrostatic gradient - inside and outside the cell have different charges
concentration gradient - different types of ions are more densely packed on one side of the membrane
than on the other
action potential - wave of electrical activity originating at base of axon and rapidly travelling down its
refractory period - brief period where neuron can't fire
synapse - small space separating nerve cells
all or none principle - nerve cells fire at same strength every time an action potential occurs
excitatory neurotransmitter - membrane potential becomes less negative, increasing the probability of
having an action potential
inhibitory neurotransimitter - membrane potential becomes more negative, decreasing the probability
of having an action potential
synaptic cleft - space between the axon terminal and the dendrite
reuptake - neurotransmitters released into the synapse are reabsorbed into the axon terminals of the
presynaptic neuron
glutamate - neurotransmitter which excites nervous system
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