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PSYC 1000 Study Guide - Final Guide: Botulism, Pituitary Gland, Reuptake


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1000
Professor
Paula Barata
Study Guide
Final

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PsychologyFinalExamReview
Module1:TheStoryOfPsychology
Definitions:
Behaviorismtheviewthatpsychology;(1)shouldbeanobjectivesciencethat(2)studies
behaviourwithoutreferencetomentalprocesses.
HumanisticPsychologyemphasizedthegrowthpotentialofhealthypeople
CognitiveNeurosciencestudyofthebrainactivitylinkedwithcognition(perception,
thinking,memory,andlanguage).Enrichedourunderstandingofthebrainactivityunderlying
mentalactivity.
Psychologyscientificstudyofbehaviourandmentalprocesses
NatureNurtureIssuecontroversythatgenesandexperienceleadtothedevelopmentof
psychologicaltraitsandbehaviours.Today’sscienceseestraitsandbehaviourarisingfromthe
interactionofnatureandnurture.
NaturalSelectionamongtherangeofinheritedtraitvariations,thosecontributingto
reproductionandsurvivalwillmostlikelybepassedontosucceedinggenerations.
LevelsofAnalysisthedifferingcomplementaryviews,frombiologicaltopsychologicalto
socialcultural,foranalyzinganygivenphenomenon.
BiopsychosocialApproachintegratedapproachthatincorporatesbiological,psychological,
andsocioculturallevelsofanalysis
BasicResearchaimstoincreasethescientificknowledgebase
AppliedResearchaimstosolvepracticalproblems
CounselingPsychologyassistspeoplewithproblemsinlivingandinachievinggreater
wellbeing
ClinicalPsychologystudies,assesses,andtreatspeoplewithpsychologicaltherapy.
Psychiatrybranchofmedicine;dealswithpsychologicaldisordersandispracticedby
physicianswhosometimesprovidemedicaltreatmentsaswellaspsychologicaltherapy.
PositivePsychologyscientificstudyofhumanfunctioningwiththegoalofdiscoveringand
promotingstrengthsandvirtuesthathelpindividualsandcommunitiestostrive.
CommunityPsychologybranchofpsychology;howpeopleinteractintheirsocial
environmentsandhowsocialinstitutionsaffectindividualsandgroups.
KeyPoints:
 6Majorperspectivesinpsychology:Biological,Cognitive,Behavioural,
Psychodynamic,Humanistic,Sociocultural
 consciousnessservesafunction;enablesustoconsiderourpast,adjusttoourpresent,
andplanourfuture

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 psychologywasredefinedas“thescientificstudyofobservablebehaviour”
 mentalprocessesaretheinternal,subjectiveexperiencesweinferfrombehaviour
sensations,perceptions,dreams,thoughts,beliefs,andfeelings
 Areourhumantraitspresentatbirth,ordotheydevelopthroughexperience?Plato
arguesweinheritcharacterandintelligence.Aristotle
argues;thereisnothinginthe
mindthatdoesnotfirstcomeinfromtheexternalworld
biologicalpsychologists;
linksbetweenbrain&mind
developmentalpsychologists;
changingabilitiesfromwombtotomb
cognitivepsychologists;
howweperceive,think,andsolveproblems
personalitypsychologists;
persistenttraits
socialpsychologists;
howweviewandaffectoneanother
 psychologydeepensourappreciationsforhowwehumansperceive,think,feel,and
act.
 CommonSenseoftenconflictsitself
WhyCan’tWeUseCommonSense?ConfirmationBias;
Aruletheythinktheyknow,
AvailabilityHeuristic;it’ssafertoflyaplanethantodriveacarandmoodeffects.
Overconfidencedoesnotcorrespondtoaccuracy
 Differentvantagepointsforanalyzingbehaviouranditscauses
 PsychologyisScientific:Answeringquestionsobjectivelybasedonobservablefacts,
data&establishedmethods,Behaviour:observableactions,MentalProcesses:
Thoughts,feelings,sensations,perceptions,motivations,dreams,subjective
experiences
 TheScientificMethodguideshowscientistsshouldcollectandanalyzedata.Asystem
designedtohelpthescientificprocessremainasaccurateandobjectiveaspossible.It
alsohelpstodeveloptheory(explains,organizes,predicts)
 TheScientificProcess:

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Module2:ThinkingCriticallyWithPsychologicalScience
Definitions:
HindsightBias:tendencytobelieve,afterlearninganoutcome,thatonewouldhaveforeseen
it(Iknewitallalongphenomenon)(ex.afterawarorelection,itsoutcomeusuallyseems
obvious)
CriticalThinking:doesnotblindlyacceptargumentsandconclusions.Ratheritexamines
assumptions,discernshiddenvalues,evaluatesevidence,andassessesconclusions.
InformedConsent:anethicalprinciplethatresearchparticipantsbetoldenoughtoenable
themtochoosewhethertheywishtoparticipateornot.
Debriefing:thepostexperimentalexplanationofastudy,includingitspurposeandany
deceptionstoitsparticipants.
KeyPoints
 ourthinking,memory,andattitudesoperateontwolevelsconsciousandunconscious
 hindsightbias,judgementaloverconfidence,andourtendencytoperceivepatternsin
randomeventsillustrateswhywecannotrelysolelyonintuitionandcommonsense
 hindsightbias,overconfidence,andourtendencytoperceivepatternsinrandomevents
oftenleadustooverestimateourintuition.Butscientificinquirycanhelpussiftreality
fromillusion
 puttingscientificattitudeintopracticerequiresnotonlycuriosityandskepticismbut
alsohumilityanawarenessofourownvulnerabilitytoerrorandanopennessto
surprisesandnewperspectives.
 anexperiment'spurposeisnottorecreatetheexactbehavioursofeverydaylifebutto
testtheoreticalprinciples.
 ourcultureshapesourbehaviour
 evenwhenspecificattitudesandbehavioursvarybygenderoracrosscultures,asthey
oftendo,theunderlyingprocessesaremuchthesame
 psychologistsstudyanimals;theywanttounderstandhowdifferentspecieslearn,
thinkandbehave.
 TwoBasicExperimentalDesigns:
Anexperimentalgroup:Receivesthemanipulation
Acontrolgroup:Doesnotreceivethemanipulation
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