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PSYC 1000 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Somatic Nervous System, Sympathetic Nervous System, Peripheral Nervous System


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1000
Professor
Dan Meegan
Study Guide
Midterm

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PSYCH 1000 MIDTERM REVIEW
Ailish Kennelly
Blue: Modules
Red: Lectures
Week 1:
(1.1) The Scientific Method
is a way of learning about the world through collecting observations, developing theories to
explain them, and using the theories to make predictions
Scientists use theories to generate hypotheses
Once tested, hypotheses are either con firmed or rejected
Confirmed hypotheses lead to new ones and strengthen theories
Rejected hypotheses are revised and tested again, and can potentially alter an existing
theory
(1.1)Building Scientific Literacy
the ability to understand, analyze, and apply scientific information.
Scientific literacy involves four different skills:
gathering knowledge about the world,
explaining it using scientific terms and concepts,
using critical thinking,
and applying and using information.
(1.2)Psychology’s Philosophical and Scientific Origins
science is actually a philosophy and stems from two fundamental beliefs:
Empiricism:
is a philosophical tenet that knowledge comes through experience
knowledge is based on careful observation not on common sense or
speculation
• Determinism
is the belief that all events are governed by lawful, cause-and-effect
relationships
free will vs determinism
(1.2)The Beginnings of Contemporary Psychology
Darwin, Fechner, and others had produced psychological research but it was not referred to
as such because the field had not yet fully formed.
Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920) was largely responsible for establishing psychology as an
independent scientific field
Wundt’s student, Edward Tichener, followed Wundts footsteps with his line of research
named structuralism. It was an attempt to analyze conscious experience by breaking it
down into basic elements, and to understand how these elements work together.
behaviourism, an approach that dominated the first half of the 20th century of North
American psychology and had a singular focus on studying only observable behaviour, with
little to no reference to mental events or instincts as possible influences on behaviour
functionalism is the study of the purpose and function of behaviour and conscious
experience
materialism: the belief that humans, and other living beings, are composed exclusively of
physical matter
Week 2:
(2.1)Five Characteristics of Quality Scientific Research
It is based on measurements that are objective, valid, and reliable.
It can be generalized.
It uses techniques that reduce bias.

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PSYCH 1000 MIDTERM REVIEW
Ailish Kennelly
It is made public.
It can be replicated.
(2.1)Replication
is the process of repeating a study and finding a similar outcome each time
ensure that published results did not occur through carelessness, dishonesty, or
coincidence.
the value of replication:
Correct hypotheses and sound methods should produce repeatable results.
[Replication]
• Psi:
Psychological phenomena unexplained by known physical/biological mechanisms
Examples: Telepathy, Psychokinesis (moving things with mind), Precognition
(awareness of a stimulus before it is presented)
(2.2)Correlational Research
involves measuring the degree of association between two or more variables
correlations can be visualized in a scatterplot graph
possibility of the third variable problem:
the possibility that a third, unmeasured variable is actually responsible for a well-
established correlation between two variables.
correlations take a direction
if positive both variables will rise or decrease together
if negative one variable will rise and the other will decrease
correlations have magnitude/strength
This refers to how closely the changes in one variable are linked to changes in
another variable
magnitude is called correlation coefficient
[Correlational research]
measures two variables and if they are related
variables are not manipulated
correlation coefficient indicates strength and direction of relationship
correlation coefficients range from -1 to +1
sign indicates direction
absolute value indicates strength
(2.2)Experimental Research
Experimental designs improve on descriptive and correlational studies because they are the
only designs that can provide strong evidence for cause-and-effect relationships
random assignment: a technique for dividing samples into two or more groups in which
participants are equally likely to be placed in any condition of the experiment
confounding variable is a variable outside of the researcher’s control that might affect or
provide an alternative explanation for the results
independent variable: variable that the experimenter manipulates to distinguish between
two or more groups
dependent variable is the observation or measurement that is recorded during the
experiment and subsequently compared across all groups
Quasi-experimental research is a research technique in which the two or more groups that
are compared are selected based on predetermined characteristics, rather than random
assignment.
(3.1) Heredity and Behaviour
genes: the basic units of heredity

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PSYCH 1000 MIDTERM REVIEW
Ailish Kennelly
genes are responsible for guiding the process of creating the proteins that make up
our physical structures and regulate development and physiological processes
throughout the lifespan
genes are composed of segments of DNA
genotype: the genetic makeup of an organism—the unique set of genes that comprise that
individual’s genetic code.
Genes specify which types of molecules a cell should produce and when to produce them.
The result of these instructions is an organism’s phenotype:
the physical traits or behavioural characteristics that show genetic variation, such as
eye colour, the shape and size of facial features, and even personality
chromosomes: structures in the cellular nucleus that are lined with all of the genes an
individual inherits
mother and father contribute half and half of their genes
behavioural genomics is the study of DNA and the ways in which specific genes are
related to behaviour
behavioural genetics is the study of how genes and the environment influence behaviour
monozygotic twins come from a single ovum (egg), which makes them genetically identical
(almost 100% genetic similarity)
dizygotic twins (fraternal twins) come from two separate eggs fertilized by two different
sperm cells that share the same womb; these twins have approximately 50% of their
genetics in common.
heritability: a statistic, expressed as a number between zero and one, that represents the
degree to which genetic differences between individuals contribute to individual differences
in a behaviour or trait found in a population
epigenetics: changes in gene expression that occur as a result of experience and that do
not alter the genetic code
[KE Family & FOXP2]
KE Family:
english family and half suffers from speech and language disorder
affected KE adults learned to compensate by memorizing words
non-words aren't memorized
males and females equally affected
affected children only had one affected parent
analyze FOXP2 in affected KE revealed mutilation
FOXP2 is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression during brain development
(3.1) Evolutionary Insights into Human Behaviour
• Darwin
evolution is not a continuous process, if a creature is perfectly adapted to its climate it will
not evolve
intrasexual selection: a situation in which members of the same sex compete in order to
win the opportunity to mate with members of the opposite sex
intrasexual selection is evolutionarily advantageous because the animals most likely to
become dominant are the strongest and/or smartest
inter sexual selection: a situation in which members of one sex select a mating partner
based on their desirable traits.
size of brain does not affect overall power of brain (ex: elephants have large brains but
humans have more powerful brains)
human brains have more folds and grooves on the outer surface of the brain than any other
species.
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