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Midterm

PSYC 1010 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Deep Brain Stimulation, American Psychiatric Association, Habituation


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
Professor
Jeffrey Yen
Study Guide
Midterm

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Phycology Post-Midterm
Question 1-2 Behavior Genetics and Evolutionary Psychology
Behavior Genetics-what makes us different
Study of differences and effects of heredity and environment
oGenetic predisposition help explain shared human nature and diversity
oShared environment has no discernible impact on personality
Molecular genetics: studies molecular structure and function of genes how they
influence behavior
Heritability: the extent to which variation among individuals can be attributing to their
differing genes. Difference among people are attributable to genes
o50% of intelligence is heritable expanding heritability not that the reason your
intelligent is due to intelligence is 50%
Difference in environments decrease =heritability increase
Epigentics: gene-environment interaction: environment trigger genetic expression
Evolutionary Psychology
Focus on what makes us alike not different
Mutation: random error in gene replication that leads to a change
Typical genetic difference between two individual is greater than average
difference between culture groups.
Largest gender difference in sexuality is sex drive. Natural Selection and mating
Question 3-4 Lecture
Question 5-6 Influences and Development
Experiences Influence Development
Experiences influence brain development: rat in enriched environment become more
developed than those in impoverished. Important during the critical period. Pruning
process-practicing a certain skill will cause brain to develop in that aspect.

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Parents and peers shape children development: abused children become abusive and
peer pressure. Parents play about 10% but more in extreme cases .
oParents: discipline, education responsibility
oPeers: co-operation, popularity, interaction
Selection Effect: teens select out of similarity and sort themselves into like-minded
groups
Cultural Influences
Culture: behavior, ideas, attitudes, values shared by a group and transmitted between
generations.
Variation across culture: cultures differ: think of handshaking vs kissing
Variation Across time: Eat out more than double, travel
Individualism: (Western): priority to one own goals over a group’s goals. Defining one
identity in terms of personal. More freedom of religion, homes, jobs etc
Collectism: priority to the goal of the group. Define one identity according the group
and avoid direct confrontation, blunt honest, and often defer to other wishes. Humble
and polite
Child rearing: western want independent children while Asian and Africans are more
closely tied to family
Developments similarities across group: small nation-nation differences in
personality traits such as continuousness and extraversion
As member of different ethnic cultural groups but 1 species we are subject to same
psychological forces but differ on the surface
Question 7-8: Gender
Gender Similarities and Differences
oAggression: 9:1 murder cases male to female in U.S
oSocial Power: Men hunger power is more acceptable and expected
oSocial connectedness: girls have smaller more intimate social groups; men have
more competitive larger groups. Females are more interdependent. Females
are more interdependent
Gender differences peak in late adolescence and early adult hood

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Nurture of Gender: Our Culture
Biologically influenced socially constructed, gender roles are behaviors and expectation
Gender role diversity over time and space indicate that culture has a big influence.
Social learning theory: children learn gender identity by observing and imitating and by
being rewarded or punished for acting a certain way.
Transgender: describing people whose gender identity or expression differ from that
associated with birth sex.
Question 9-12: Development
Development examines physical, cognitive and social development
oContinuity and Stages: continuity is learning and experiencing, whereas
biological maturation is seen as stages (e.g moral development)
oStability and Changes: Temperament is stable whereas social attitudes are
changeable. With age people are more agreeable, conscientious, stable, and
self-confident
Pre-Natal Development and the Newborn
Zygote: fertilized egg which enter 2 week period of rapid cell division
Embryo: development human organism 2weeks to 2nd month
Fetus: development human organism from 9 weeks to birth
At each stage the environment factors affect development
Newborn babies like mother voice and language
Teratogens cause prenatal harm FAS: causes physical and cognitive abnormalities in
children. Noticeable facial disproportions
The competent Newborn
o Habituation: a decrease in responding with repeated stimulation (smell, faces).
Babies focous on faces.
Question 13-14 Piaget
Piaget and Cognitive Development
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