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PSYC Glossary CH 1-3

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PSYC 2040
Anneke Olthof

PSYC 2650 Glossary Chapters 1-3 Introspection – Process through which one “looks within” to observe and record the contents of one’s own mental life Behaviourism – How behaviour changes in response to stimuli such as rewards/punishments Working memory – Storage system in which information is held while it is currently being worked on Span test – Used to determine capacity of working memory Subvocalization – Silent pronouncing words Phonological buffer – An auditory image of the words Anarthria – Medical condition in which the individual is unable to speak Hindbrain – sits atop spinal cord. Controls heartbeat and breathing, alertness and includes the cerebellum (movement and balance) Midbrain – Sits above the hindbrain. Coordinates movement (eyes), includes parts of the auditory pathways, regulates the experience of pain Forebrain – Comprises most parts of the brain visible from outer surface. Cortex and a variety of subcortical structures Cortex – Thin convoluted sheet of tissue. Divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres by longitudinal fissure Commissures – Bundles of nerve fibers that connect the hemispheres, larges being the corpus callosum Thalamus – Hypothalamus – Limbic system – Amygdala – Hippocampus – Primary projection areas –Arrival and departure points for info entering (sensory areas) and leaving (motor areas) in the cortex Cortical maps – Represent sensory or motor information in an orderly manner Rods – Photoreceptors in retina. High sensitivity but lower acuity, colour blind, found in periphery of the retina (responsible for seeing in the dark) Cones – Photoreceptors in retina. Low sensitivity but higher acuity, colour-sensitive, found in the fovea Optic disk – Area of the retina that contains no rods or cones because it is the point where the optic nerve leaves the eye (blind spot test) Neuron – a specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses; a nerve cell Dendrites – Part of neuron; detect incoming signals Cell body – Part of neuron; contains nucleus and cellular machinery Axon – Part of neuron; transmits signals to other neurons via neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters – Chemicals released by one neuron to communicate with another Synapse – The space between two neurons Presynaptic neuron – The first neuron involved in neural communication (sender) Postsynaptic neuron – The second neuron involved in neural communication (receiver) Action potential – The change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell What system –
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