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Soc Psych Final Exam Review.docx

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PSYC 2310
Anneke Olthof

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY FINAL EXAM TEXTBOOK REVIEW Chapter 5: Social Cognition - Automatic thinking: a type of decision-making process that occurs at an unconscious or automatic level and is entirely effortless and unintentional o Heuristics: mental shortcuts that are often used to form judgements and make decisions - Controlled/effortful thinking: thinking that is effortful, conscious, and intentional o We use this type of thinking when we have the time and motivation necessary to make the considerable effort this type of thinking involves - Social cognition: how people think about the social world, and in particular how people select, interpret, and use information to make judgements about the world How Can Shortcuts Lead to Errors in Thinking About the World? - Study: participants were heavily influenced by the titles of articles - Intuition: a decision-making shortcut in which we rely on our instinct instead of relying on more objective information o Study: people assessed the likelihood of certain events occurring; people who are paid to do this as a living were quite inaccurate with their predictions; they were no more accurate than non-expects o Study: multiple choice exam; don’t always go for first answer, 51% of students who erased their answer and picked another when from a wrong answer to a right answer - Availability heuristic: a mental shortcut in which people make a judgement based on how easily they can bring something to mind o People are more influenced by the salience of an event rather than how often they occur; this explains why people worry about extremely rare events but don’t about events that occur more often, which are usually more dangerous (ex. worrying that their child is going to get kidnapped rather than wearing a helmet while bicycling) o Schemas: mental structures that organize our knowledge about the world and influence how we interpret people and events  Past experiences activate schemas; you rely on past experiences more than objective information  The more recent experiences are, the more likely we are to draw upon them  Study: men completed a word recognition task that identified a series of sexist or non-sexist words about women; then they interviewed a female confederate for a job and rated her competence; those who had been exposed to sexist words rated her as less competent than those who saw non-sexist words - Stereotypes are an example of schemas o Person schemas: beliefs about other people, their traits, and goals o Self schemas: our memory, inferences, and information about ourselves  People recall behaviours that are relevant to their self schema more than behaviours that aren’t o Role schemas: behaviours that are expected of people in particular occupations or social positions o Event schemas: scripts that people have for well-known situations which help them prepare for the expected sequence of events o Content-free schemas: rules about processing information - Priming: increase accessibility to a given concept or schema due to a prior experience o Study: participants exposed to words flashing subliminally that related to high performance or to neutral concepts; people exposed to words priming high performance found more such words in a word-search puzzle, compared to the others o Study: participants primed with autonomous motivation (desire, willing, freedom) performed better on exercise task, invested more effort, persisted longer during the learning period and the free-choice period, reported more interest and enjoyment and reported a higher level of autonomy than the people primed with controlled motivation (constraint, obligation, duty) o Study: participants primed with negative interpersonal expectations (critical, rejecting, hurtful, distant) or with positive interpersonal expectations (helpful, caring, supporting, accepting); then asked how they would respond if they were told they were accidentally pregnant; positive priming = seeking emotional support; negative priming = fewer reports of positive affect - The amount of information we can bring to mind about an effect contributes to the availability effect o The more information we have on something, the more we are to think it is likely to happen o Study: participants who only had to recall six examples of assertive behaviour rather than twelve showed higher assertiveness; participants use the ease of their recall as a guide to determine whether that trait describes them (it is much easier to recall 6 examples than 12) - Representativeness: the tendency to perceive someone or something based on its similarity to a typical case (seeing someone as belonging to a particular group or category based on how similar they are to a typical person in that category) - Base-rate fallacy: an error in which people ignore the numerical frequency, or base rate, of an event in estimating how likely it is to occur (ignoring the probability that an event will occur) - Anchoring and adjustment: a mental shortcut in which people rely on an initial starting point in making an estimate but then fail to adequately adjust from this anchor o People can fail to adjust even when the initial anchor is obviously wrong o Study: people asked at what age Gandhi died; those who were asked whether it was before or after age 140 guessed 67; those initially given the anchor of before or over age 9 guessed around 50 o Sometimes people rely on anchors to make their judgements when the anchor should clearly have no impact on their decision (when two things are unrelated) o The final price for an object tends to be closer to the initial price when a precise anchor has been given as opposed to a more rounded anchor (ex. $20 vs. $19.55 - $21 or 19.60) - Counterfactual thinking: the tendency to imagine alternative outcomes to various events o When it’s easy to imagine a different outcome, you experience a stronger emotional reaction to the outcome o Study: bronze medal winners are happier than silver medal winners; silver medal winners think about the better outcome, whereas bronze medal winners think about how they almost won no medal o People who feel they could have “undone” a negative event experience more distress; ex. Israeli soldiers who switch shifts with people, person who took over dies; they feel terrible distress and now are no longer allowed to switch shifts o The desire to avoid the regret caused by counterfactual thinking can influence us to not act at all o Study: ticket originally costs $100, told you can get it for $90; many students take up this offer; OR told you could get ticket for $40, but then miss out, and get another offer of $90 = less likely to pick this option; this is because they don’t want to be reminded of the regret of not going with the original cheap price o Self-esteem influences our use of counterfactual thinking o Study: people with high self-esteem were more likely to engage in counterfactual thinking in the successful outcome scenario (people who feel good about themselves confirm it by their good outcome and find it easy to exaggerate their perception of their own part in the outcome); people with low self- esteem found it easier to generate alternative actions for themselves under conditions of failure (confirming their low perception of themselves); people can distort their perception of events to correspond with their already-held schemas o Counterfactual thinking can have positive effects: use it to make themselves feel better than whey have narrowly missed a negative outcome (next time, I’ll do this earlier and this bad thing won’t be so likely to happen); can serve to motivate future behaviour when a positive outcome was narrowly missed (next time I’ll do this, and this bad thing won’t happen to me again) How Does Presentation Influence How We Think About The World? - Contrast effect: the relative difference in intensity between two stimuli and their effect on each other o Study: men showed either playboy/penthouse magazine pictures, or pictures of art and then asked to rank how attracted they are to their lover; men who saw playboy/penthouse were less attracted than ones who saw pictures of art o Ex. lifting a heavy box seems way lighter after previously lifting something that was heavier o The information or target is precisely the same in different situations, but the way we perceive that information is very different depending on how it’s presented o Study: after watching Charlie’s Angels, men rated a photo as less attractive than those who were watching another show with non-attractive females in the show o We see ourselves as less attractive after seeing photos of highly attractive people of the same gender - Framing: the tendency to be influenced by the way an issue is presented o Ex. more likely to use a drug with a 90% success rate or a 10% failure rate? o When the messages goal is to get people to adopt a new behaviour, framing the message negatively (in terms of the costs of not engaging in the behaviour) is most effective  Study: women exposed to a negatively framed message expressed the most positive attitudes and intentions about engaging in a breast self-exam and were more likely to report performing these exams later on; positive message: “women who do breast self-examination have an increased chance of finding a tumour in the early, more treatable stage of the disease”; negative message: “women who do not do breast self-examination have a decreased chance of finding a tumour in the early, more treatable stage of the disease” o Gain-framed messages (those that emphasize the benefits of engaging in a behaviour) are more effective in promoting behaviour to prevent a problem from developing  Study: 71% of people who received gain-framed messages about skin cancer requested free sunscreen as compared to 46% of those who received the loss-framed messages; gain-framed messages are more effective than loss-framed ones at increasing intentions to use condoms How Do We Form Impressions Of People? - Implicit personality theory: the theory that certain traits and behaviours go together o Knowing that a person has a given trait leads us to assume that they also have certain other traits - We form impressions of people very quickly; the information that we first learn about people has a strong influence on our overall judgement o Primacy: the tendency for information that is presented early to have a greater impact on judgements than information that is presented later o Study: two descriptions of people were given out; both were the exact same except in one condition the word “warm” was added to the list and in the other condition the word “cold” was added to the list; participants that read the list that included the word “warm” saw the person as being more happy, fun, good-natured, and generous than the other person o Depending on the order of the traits listed, we can form different opinions. The first trait we hear about exerts a particularly strong impact on the impressions we form - Different parts of the brain are used when people engage in social tasks versus non-social tasks o Study: participants used the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PRC) when engaging in a social task (asked to form an impression of someone) and the superior frontal and parietal gyri, precentral gyrus, and the caudate when engaging in the non-social task (asked to memorize the order of the information presented) - Study: rate yourself and peers around them on the first day of class; students self-ratings were positively correlated with other students’ ratings of them; first impressions can sometimes be remarkably correct - Study: shown two pictures of people running for congress, asked to identify who looked the most competent; people were correct 70% of the time (the most competent person usually won) - Study: people were 70% accurate in determining whether a man was straight or gay from just a photo - People are more strongly influenced by negative traits than positive ones o Trait negativity bias: the tendency for people to be more influenced by negative traits than by positive ones o One bad trait can destroy someone’s reputation much more than one positive trait can impress people o We need to react to negative information (threats to our safety) - One of the drawbacks of using shortcuts when forming impressions of people is that it can lead us to focus on general information about a person’s group or category rather than specific information about the particular person o Study: participants with progressive attitudes toward women made fewer errors in matching names to descriptions for female targets than for male targets; those with more traditional attitudes toward women made more errors in matching names to descriptions for female targets than for male ones o Study: people who hold extreme stereotypes of other groups are more likely to dismiss as atypical a person who doesn’t conform to the stereotype, rather than alter the stereotype. The more extreme the observed person deviates from the stereotype, the more likely they were to be dismissed - People who are in a positive mood are more likely than those in a neutral mood to rely on shortcuts in thinking o Because you’re happy, you’re likely to see other things in a positive way o Study: participants who were in a good mood saw themselves more positively than those in a bad mood after watching a video of themselves talking to someone How Do Beliefs Create Reality? - Perceptual confirmation: the tendency for people to see things in line with their own beliefs and preconceptions - Study: normal people admitted themselves into a mental hospital, once they were in there, their normal behaviours were seen as crazy - People feel even more supportive of their favoured political candidate after watching a debate - Illusory correlation: the tendency to see a correlation between two events when in reality there is no association between them o We tend to notice events that support our belief and ignore those that don’t o Study: people tend to attribute behaviour that is more rare to members of small groups - Unrealistic optimism: the tendency for people to see themselves as less likely than others to suffer bad events in the future - Illusory superiority: an unrealistically positive view of the self (and an unrealistic perception of our own control over events) - Hindsight bias: the tendency of people to see a given outcome as having been inevitable once they know the actual outcome o Study: participants read about a dating situation that ended in either a rape or a marriage proposal; the story was the exact same in the two conditions except for the last line, the people saw the ending as predictable in both situations - Belief perseverance: the tendency to maintain, and even strengthen, beliefs in the face of disconfirming evidence o Study: figuring out which suicide notes are real or fake; but, the experimenter told the students that the results he told them weren’t actually true and were pre-made (ex. you got 10/25, this isn’t true); those who had been told they only got 10/25 right said about 13, those who were told they got 17/25 said about 15, those who had been told 24/25 said about 17; even though all participants heard their scores were predetermined, the fake scores still influenced their assessment of their own abilities o The effects of belief perseverance are strong when people generate their own causal reasons as opposed to when they read explanations provided by others - Behavioural confirmation/self-fulfilling prophecy: the process by which people’s expectations about a person lead them to elicit behaviour that confirms those expectations o Study: men who thought they were interacting on the phone with an attractive woman were friendlier and more outgoing and these women were seen to have responded in a more positive way o Study: anticipation of acceptance or rejection predicted personal warmth, which predicted actual acceptance o Study: if the participant thought the other member was worried about being rejected or accepted, they acted warmer towards them o Study: judges’ beliefs influence juries’ decisions even in cases in which jurors are told to disregard the judge’s behaviour and form their own opinions o Study: students whose performance was expected to be high had significantly more academic learning time (they were being taught more effectively); teachers behave differently towards high expectancy students o Behavioural confirmation is less likely to occur if the perceiver’s goal is to be liked by the target person; we thus try harder to get to know the person o Study: participants who were told the person they are interviewing were given a negative expectation, and they acted cold toward the person; the ones who were told this but were also told to try and be liked by that person, acted much more warmly (disconfirmed their negative expectation) o Behavioral confirmation is less likely to occur if targets are aware of the perceivers’ expectations (the target will try to counter these expectations) o Study: those who were aware their partner might see them as cold were the most successful at refuting this inaccurate belief o Study: those who expected another person to be extroverted and were very certain of this judgement asked more confirming questions than those who were less certain; when targets were quite firm in their beliefs about their own traits, they actively resisted the questions and eventually convinced the perceivers of their actual traits o We’re better at judging friends and acquaintances than at judging strangers; we’re better at making judgements about how people will act around us than about how they’ll act in other situations (we know the people and have lots of information about them) o We can form more accurate impressions when we’re motivated to be accurate and open-minded and when we’re aware of biases o People might try to live up to the positive self-prophecies (if your boyfriend views you as better than you are, you might try and be this person) How Does Culture Influence Social Cognition? - People from different cultures think about the world in different ways; people from collectivistic cultures place greater emphasis on situational factors while people from individualistic cultures emphasize dispositional factors - Study: Anglo-Americans made trait judgements based on someone’s behaviour much more quickly than Mexican Americans; this reflects Anglo-Americans tendency to emphasize the role of traits in leading to behaviour - Study: unrealistic optimism is found less frequently among Japanese students than among Canadian students - Study: Chinese participants judged a murder less likely to occur if the situation had changed than Americans; Americans and Canadians focus on the persons disposition and that the disposition led to the murder, not the situation - People from individualistic cultures make judgements about people’s personality much more quickly than those in collectivistic cultures - People whose sense of self is interdependently define themselves in terms of contexts and relationships with others; those who define their identity in independent terms perceive their self as autonomous and separate from others - Field dependent: having more difficulty in identifying an embedded figure in a larger background but greater ability to perceive an image as one holistic figure - Field independent: having the ability to identify an embedded figure and separate it from a larger background o Societies that foster an independent self-construal are related to analytical thinking o Societies that foster an interdependent self-construal are related to context dependency and holistic thinking Chapter 10 (pp. 332-352): Intergroup Relations How Does Intergroup Conflict Develop? - Realistic conflict theory: a theory that describes conflict between different groups as resulting from individuals’ self-interest motives in competition for jobs, land, power, and other resources o Limited resources o Study: the Rattlers vs. the Eagles at a camp; groups became super divided; but once they needed to work together to accomplish a goal, the conflict subsided; competition clearly increases conflict o Study: between Israeli Jews and Palestinians (who were in war against each other) both consider the violent behaviour of the other side to be terrorism, while believing the violence from their own side is justified o Mirror-image perception: reciprocal view when each group sees its own behaviour as caused by the actions of the other side - Relative deprivation: the feelings of discontent caused by the belief that one fares poorly compared to people in other groups o Difference between the person or group’s perception of reality and their expectation o Ex. They’re taking our jobs! They’re better than us. - Absolute/realistic deprivation: the belief that one’s own resources are directly threatened by people in other groups - Study: air force personnel expressed more complaints about promotion than did the military police even though the opportunity for promotion was more likely for people in air force; because more people in air force receive promotion, ones who didn’t felt relatively deprived by comparison with others; because most personnel in the military police did not receive promotion, few felt deprived - Pre-conditions for experiencing relative deprivation o Must be aware that someone has X to experience feeling of discontent; X has to be valued; if X is not easy to obtain o Conditions are: seeing someone possess X; wanting X; feeling entitled to X; feasibility to X; not feeling personally responsible for the lack of X; experiencing relative deprivation - Two forms of relative deprivation: o 1. Fraternalistic relative deprivation refers to feeling deprived as a result of comparing the status of one’s group with that of another group o 2. Egoistic relative deprivation refers to feeling deprived as a result of comparing one’s status with that of similar others o Fraternalistic relative deprivation is associated with intergroup attitudes and conflict, not egoistic deprivation; found to be the best predictor of negative attitudes of Anglo-Americans toward African Americans, Muslims toward Hindus, and separatist attitudes of French Canadians - People who experience relative deprivation have more negative attitudes toward out-groups members compared to participants who believe they’re more advantaged than others How Can Intergroup Conflict Be Resolved? - Increased intergroup contact: associated with more positive feelings toward members of a variety of out-groups o Even people who know an in-group member who has an out-group friend have less negative attitudes toward that group; also those who observe an in-group/out-group friendship o Providing equal status contact: each group member contributes to a situation equally; pursuing a superordinate goal (a goal that can only be achieved if the members of both groups cooperate) that requires a contribution from both groups; forming a common group identity (finding common ground between two groups) o Contact with people from different groups is especially beneficial for positive intergroup relations when people see intergroup contact as personally relevant, valuable, and important – leads to less prejudice o Common group identity:  Study: Jewish students reflected on the Holocaust; one condition expressing the Germans violent ways toward Jews, the other expressing how people acted out against other people; the Jews who read the one about people acting out against other people were more likely to forgive the Germans for the Holocaust than the ones who read about the Germans being evil to the Jews because they had a SHARED IDENTITY - Common in-group identity model: a reduction in prejudice is more likely when group members believe they have a shared identity - GRIT strategy o GRIT: graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension-reduction; a strategy for resolving conflict that involves unilateral and persistent efforts to establishing trust and cooperation between opposing parties  One party announces its intention to reduce conflict, and invites the other party to reciprocate; then the first party goes through its tension-reducing activities even if the other party hasn’t responded; this increases their credibility and may put pressure on the other party to respond accordingly; once the other party acts, the first party reciprocates; if the other party retaliates, then the first party retaliates  Study: 90% of people who used this strategy reached an agreement; 65% of people did in a typical competitive interaction   People who use GRIT reach agreements faster and form more positive expectations about future interactions - Bargaining: a very commonly used approach to resolving conflict at an individual level, whereby an agreement is sought through direct negotiation between both sides in the conflict o People who appear tough during negotiations are more likely to secure a good deal o Study: participants acted as sellers negotiating prices; participants were told either that buyer was angry, others participant was happy with the offer; participants who believed the buyer was angry offered better prices than those who believed the buyer was happy - Mediation: a particular type of bargaining in which a neutral third party tries to resolve a conflict by facilitating communication between the opposing parties and offering suggestions - Arbitration: resolution of a conflict by a neutral third party who studies both sides and imposes a settlement o Mediation tends to produce better results than arbitration (people more satisfied with mediation) - Integrative solution: a negotiated resolution to a conflict in which all parties obtain outcomes that are superior to what they would have obtained from an equal division of the contested resources o Both sides should honestly discuss their goals and needs; understand the viewpoint of the other side o Should apologize so sides don’t put blame on the other (women apologize more than men) o Study: as children get older, they apologize more without parents mandating the apology How Does Culture Relate to Intergroup Relations? - Collectivists more likely to cooperate with their in-group than out-groups; common for them to dislike out-group members o This is not accepted in individualistic societies and is seen as prejudiced; attention should be paid to individual characteristics rather than group memberships - Collectivistic cultures see people in in-groups and out-groups as homogenous ; individualistic cultures see the people in the groups are more heterogeneous - Collectivist cultures are more likely to engage in ethnocentrism - Culture influences how individuals view the causes of conflict and which strategies they use to resolve conflict o Study: American vs. Chinese students given hypothetical scenarios where there was conflict; 74% of Americans put blame on one side, 28% of Chinese put blame on one side - Canadians more likely to compromise when in conflict in comparison to Turks - Japanese are more likely to listen to both sides of the story in comparison to Americans - Asians pay less attention to verbal expressions + more to non-verbal ones than Americans - Americans focus more on content than tone of vocals; Japanese focus more on tone - Acculturation: behavioural and psychological changes that happen when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first hand contact o Two main models of acculturation: linear process – as individuals learn the values and behaviours of a new culture, they lose their original cultural values and behaviours; cultural pluralism model – members of an ethnic group can maintain their heritage culture while also adapting to the mainstream society o Two focal questions to which immigrants and newcomers to any society have to respond:  1. How much one values maintaining one’s original cultural identity and characteristics  2. How much one values contact and participation with another group  If the answer to both of these questions is highly valued, the individual wants integration: the tendency to maintain one’s own culture and also participate in the larger society  If the answer to the first question is highly valued and the answer to the second question is low value, the individual desires separation: the tendency to maintain one’s own culture but to reject, or not participate in, the larger society  If the answer to the first question is little and the answer to the second is highly valued, the individual desires assimilation: the tendency to abandon one’s original culture and participate in the larger society  If the answers to both questions are very little, the individual desires marginalization: the tendency to neither maintain one’s own culture nor participate in the larger society  Study: integration positively associated with self-esteem; assimilation negatively related to self- esteem Chapter 11: Stereotype, Prejudice, and Discrimination - Stereotype: a belief that associated a whole group of people with a certain trait - Prejudice: hostile or negative feelings about people based on their membership in a certain group - Discrimination: behaviour directed against people solely because of their membership in a particular group What Factors Contribute to Stereotyping and Prejudice? - We may engage in negative behaviour toward others when we feel bad about ourselves - Study: participants who received negative feedback about their own intelligence rated a Jew as worse than the Italian when both of them were equal; those who rated the Jewish person more negatively had a greater boost in their self-esteem following the experiment - Study: explicit self-esteem – self-esteem that one has expressed about oneself; implicit self-esteem – one’s evaluation of oneself that may exist outside of one’s awareness; people who consciously feel positive about themselves (explicit) but who harbour self-doubts and insecurities at less conscious levels (implicit) behave more defensively; when participants were given negative feedback on an intelligence test, those with high explicit and low implicit self-esteem gave an Aboriginal a more severe punishment than a White student when both started fights; threat to participants’ self-esteem results in prejudiced behaviour towards out-group members - People form attitudes through conditioning and modelling o Whites who hear someone express racist views express weaker antiracist positions than those without such exposure - Social learning; many people feel relatively comfortable expressing prejudice against racists, drug addicts, etc. but feel uncomfortable expressing prejudice against people in other stigmatized groups (the blind, elderly, immigrants). People therefore avoid discriminating against people in the “not acceptable” category, but show high prejudice toward socially acceptable groups to discriminate against. Some people think they are unprejudiced but make jokes about pedophiles or “red-necks”. - Believing that other people agree with our stereotypes increases the strength and accessibility of these stereotypes, thereby making them more resistant to change o Study: receiving information about the “normality” of their views influences behaviour - Study: low prejudice students in the multicultural condition were more likely to express warmth toward the Aboriginal student than the low prejudice students in the control condition; the high prejudice students in the multicultural condition expressed lower warmth than high prejudice students in the control condition (they read a passage on multiculturalism, control condition didn’t); for high prejudice people, reading the article increased their level of threat - Social categorization: the practice of classifying people into in-groups or out-groups based on attributes that the person has in common with the in-group or out-group - Out-group homogeneity effect: people’s tendency to underestimate the variability of out-group members compared to the variability of in-group members o Refers to people’s tendency to see out-group members as very similar to one another, and in-group members as being more diverse; this happens because we typically have more exposure to our in-group than the out-group; babies are better at discriminating between faces within their own ethnic group than those in the out-group; this is LEARNED; Asian babies who are adopted by Whites are better able to distinguish between white people than Asians - Cross-ethnic identification bias: the tendency to see out-group members as looking very similar to one another, and showing greater accuracy for recognizing in-group members than out-group members - In-group favouritism: the tendency to evaluate one’s in-group more positively than out-groups o Study: participants more confident in judging emotional expression of faces that were members of their cultural in-group than those of out-groups o We’re motivated to favour those in our in-group because they are most likely to favour us o In-group favouritism is more likely when people heavily identify with the group, and when group norms are salient (Whites who identify strongly with White ethnicity will approve of things that won’t affect Whites, whereas for a White who doesn’t identify strongly will consider if this thing will affect others like Blacks, as well) o Social dominance orientation: a personality trait that indicates preference to maintain hierarchy within and between groups  people who are high in social dominance are more likely to engage in in-group favouritism o those who believe their own group is dominant over other groups are more prejudiced against people in lower-status groups - People use shortcuts in their thinking (cognitive biases): o Illusory correlation: the tendency to overestimate the association between variables that are only slightly or not at all correlated  People who are distinctive (novel/unique) are more salient (they stick out more); behaviours committed by members of groups that are distinctive receive more attention and are more memorable than behaviours committed by members of common groups (people then overestimate how often the distinctive behaviour occurs with that group) o Ultimate attribution error: an error in which ppl make dispositional attributions for negative behaviour + situational attributions for positive behaviour by out-group members + show the reverse for successes and failures for in-group members  Study: rape victim; participants read story on how she acted to the man at a party, and others read about how she acted and how she got raped; people who didn’t know she got raped thought her behaviour was appropriate; people who knew she got raped thought her behaviour was inappropriate - People perceive stimuli that are different from expectations as more different than they actually are (ex. if you expect women to be passive and gentle, when you encounter one who is strong and assertive, she may seem especially tough and aggressive) o Shifting standards model: a model that posits that people within a group are more often compared to others within that group rather than to people in other groups - Perceptual confirmation: the tendency to see things in line with one’s expectation o Study: teachers told to rate students performances and told the students were Aboriginal or non- Aboriginal; teachers rated Aboriginals as way lower in terms of performance even when scores were the same between groups - We require fewer examples to confirm our beliefs about a trait that is highly stereotypical of a person in a given out-group than for a person in our in-group - Confirmation bias: the tendency to search for information that supports one’s initial view o When people have expectations about a particular person, they address few questions to that person, and hence acquire relatively little information that could disprove their assumptions; we ignore information that disputes our expectations o People who are unprejudiced pay more attention to stereotype-disconfirming information than stereotype-confirming information; they also make different attributions for behaviour – stereotype- confirming behaviour as situational (external) and stereotype-disconfirming behaviour as dispositional (internal) - Measuring prejudice: o Self-report measures: questionnaires, great for getting lots of data because they can be distributed at low-cost to many people but hard to get appropriate answers for sensitive subjects (people will lie to sound better) o Covert measures: fake lie-detector test; IAT (Implicit Association Test) – easier and faster to make the same response to concepts that are strongly associated with each other than concepts that are weakly associated with each other What are the Consequences of Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination? - Study: women who had watched a gender stereotypical commercial performed worse on a math test than those who had watched the counter-stereotypical commercial - Self-fulfilling prophecy is when we interact with people in a way that brings out certain behaviours that we expect o Study: white students interviewed black and white undergraduates for a job; those who interviewed blacks interacted differently than those who interacted with whites; then people were trained based on these interviewers (people who interviewed blacks sat further away, made less eye contact, etc.); the students who followed did worse when interviewed in a black way; those who were interviewed in the black way were seen as less adequate for the job - Stereotype threat: the fear that one’s behaviour may confirm an existing cultural stereotype, which then disrupts one’s performance o This leads them to confirm the negative stereotype about their group o Study: SAT test given to participants; one condition received information that it examined high vs. low ability factors, the other condition received information that it was just examining methods of problem- solving; blacks did just as well as whites on first condition; blacks did way worse on second, probably because blacks are seen as underachievers o When minorities are in a threatening environment, their performance tends to worsen o Stereotype threat can affect people in different ways; Asian women do better when their ethnic identity is primed on math tests, but do worse when their sex is primed o Threat increases anxiety and leads to lower working capacity - Rejection-identification model: a model which proposes that people in disadvantaged groups experience a negative impact on their well-being when they perceive prejudice and discrimination against themselves o Can experience depression, sadness, and helplessness o Those who identify strongly with their group feel more discrimination and psychological distress than those who don’t identify as strongly - Those who attribute poor behaviour to prejudice experience social costs (ex. blacks who attribute failing grades to discrimination rather than taking responsibility for poor performance) o Study: given a test (women given a test that was marked by male, men marked by females, blacks marked by White Anglos, White Anglos marked by blacks); members of stigmatized groups (women and blacks) reported that they received a failing grade because of discrimination, but when they had to give this feedback out loud, they were more likely to report that their failure was due to lack of ability; this pattern was not found for members of non-stigmatized groups (men and White Anglos) - To minimize the effects of prejudice, disengage and ignore negative feedback; members of low status groups can compare their outcomes to those in their in-group rather than out-group; de-value the dimensions that your group doesn’t do so well on and value the dimensions that they do well on; members of low status groups can increase their identification with the in-group (as a way of increasing self-esteem) – those high in identity react against out-group when discriminated against, those low in identity feel angry with themselves instead - Reverse discrimination: preferential treatment of people in stereotyped groups o Study: friendly blacks received lower severity shocks than friendly white confederates (participants want to show how “not racist” they are); hostile blacks received greater intensity shocks than hostile whites; minorities are evaluated more extremely (either really good if good, or really bad if bad) - Stereotypes consist of two basic dimensions: competence and warmth o High status groups: highly competent but not very warm; low status groups: incompetent but warm; very low status groups: low in both competence and warmth o We pity those who are low in competence but high in warmth; envy those who are low in warmth and high in competence; disgust when people low in competence and warmth - Hostile sexism: feelings of hostility toward women based on their threat to men’s power o People who are high on hostile sexism have negative attitudes towards women; men higher on hostile sexism than women - Benevolent sexism: having positive, but patronizing, views of women o Ex. believing women are considerate and are better listeners - Aversive prejudice: conscious endorsement of unprejudiced beliefs about a group while at the same time holding unconscious negative attitudes toward the group o Study: policy to either deny people with a BMI over 30 surgery, or not; most people accepted this surgery, but when thinking of obese people they felt disgust and were more likely to see the policy as less discriminatory Is Stereotyping Inevitable? - Yes. - Stereotypes are activated automatically o Without conscious awareness o Study: participants unconsciously primed with black stereotype words and then read a paragraph about a man who engaged in hostile behaviours; participants who had been primed with black words saw his behaviour as being more aggressive than those who were primed with neutral words o Study: stereotypic movements lead to stereotypes; pedalling slowly on a bike leads to rating someone as more obese or slow, etc. Doing movements with weights and a life jacket and then asked to rate some imaginary character, rate them as being obese and slow, etc. o Study: found that when a gender stereotype was used in regard to the target image’s preference (ex. female target likes shopping for clothes) the frontal cortex was more activated than when a gender stereotype was not used o Study: when participants made stereotypic associations about gender and ethnicity, there was higher activity in the medial prefrontal cortex regions (functions as an emotional-motor system when we perceive something as a threat or negative) - Stereotypes are hard to suppress o Suppressing stereotypes uses up considerable energy and effort; those who try to resist using them end up doing worse on cognitive tasks o People who suppress stereotypes sometimes end up being more prejudiced later on - Sub-categorization: the maintenance of prior beliefs by creating separate categories for people who disconfirm these stereotypes o Study: creation of a police-school program designed to change students negative stereotypical views on officers changed their views on school police officers, but not other officers o Encountering stereotype-inconsistent information can decrease the strength of a stereotype if the information is dispersed across different group members rather than being concentrated in a small number of people  Study: people who see high dispersion of a stereotype-inconsistent trait among the members of a group become less confident in holding stereotypes about particular individuals in the group (the study with lawyers; some being stereotypically inconsistent vs. ALL being stereotypically inconsistent)  Stereotype inconsistent behaviour is highly effective in reducing stereotypes when this behaviour is attributed to stable internal causes (ex. person’s character) rather than something temporary (ex. social pressure) - Study: natives read essays on people written by non-aboriginals and aboriginals; both exact same and had errors; more likely to offer help to the aboriginal and spend more time fixing their essay, but less likely to hire them - Study: applicants to a job wore a “Texan and Proud” hat and a “Gay and Proud” hat; people who wore gay and proud hats given less time when applying than the Texan’s - Study: participants read applications to a job; when reading males being “educated”, they thought this was good for the job rather than an educated female; if the female candidate was described as “streetwise”, the educated characteristic was seen as much more important in the hiring decision than when the male candidate was described as streetwise How Can Social and Cognitive Interventions Help Overcome Prejudice? - Taking the perspective of a person in a stereotyped group o More effective if the perspective-taking is targeted at an emotional rather than a cognitive level o Study: in a classroom, teacher told students that blue-eyed people were better than brown-eyed people. The children became divided quickly and the ones being discriminated against became depressed, etc. Children performed worse on tests when they were members of the minority group than when they were members of the majority group. - Learn considerable information about a person - Provide training in statistical reasoning o About how we can erroneously think certain things go together o How we think about inequality can impact stereotypes. Whites who think about White privilege show lower racism than those who think about it as Black disadvantages - Women tend to express less prejudice toward gay men and lesbians than do men o People who are high on internal motivation are more likely to be less prejudiced than people who are high on external motivation (I attempt to be non-prejudiced because it is important to me vs. I attempt to be non-prejudiced to avoid negative reactions from other people) - Increase self-awareness: pointing out stereotypical attitudes leads people to self-reflect and motivate them to change their beliefs - Adopt egalitarian goals: people with a focus on avoiding the use of stereotypes are able to control automatic stereotype activation - Be motivated to be accurate: likely to hold stereotypes when we are under time pressure; gather more information and do so in a less biased way - Avoid trying too hard: people’s efforts to appear non-biased can backfire and they can actually end up behaving less warmly to members of other groups How Does Culture Relate to Prejudice and Stereotypes? - More ethnocentrism and sexism found among individuals who were more collectivistic o Degree of prejudice changes across cultures - Auto-stereotype: a stereotype that one holds about one’s own group - Hetero-stereotype: stereotypes about other groups o Auto-stereotypes and hetero-stereotypes tend to overlap - Study: the negative American stereotypes about memory in older adults may actually create a self-fulfilling prophecy in which memory loss in greater than in cultures in which a negative stereotype doesn’t exist - Meta-stereotype: a person’s beliefs about the stereotypes that out-group members hold about the person’s own group - People in collectivistic cultures show more evidence of in-group favouritism - Study: belief that weight is controllable is related to negative evaluations of fat people; a negative evaluation of fat people is more related to a rejection of fat people in individualistic countries than collectivistic countries; the tendency to see fatness as controllable leads to more prejudice; in some cultures, fatness is viewed as more desirable - Cultures in which honour is highly valued are more inclined to tolerate violence against women within a relationship Chapter 12: Aggression - Emotional/hostile aggression: aggression in which one inflicts harm for its own sake on another - Instrumental aggression: aggression in which one inflicts harm in order to obtain something of value Definition of Aggression: - Aggression: physical or verbal behaviour that is intended to harm another individual who is motivated to avoid such treatment (the harm is unwanted rather than sought out) How Do Biological Factors Influence Aggression? - Study: men who committed violent crimes and were in jail had higher testosterone levels than men who had committed property crimes; men with higher testosterone levels violated more rules while in prison - Sigmund Freud saw believed that people possess a powerful death wish or drive and to cope with this unconscious desire, people channel their energy either inward (and engage in self-destructive behaviour) or channel it outward (engage in aggression against other people) - Freud saw aggression as a type of energy that builds up over time until it’s released o Catharsis: release of suppressed energy or emotion - But, research has shown that engaging in aggressive behaviour doesn’t reduce aggressive feelings, it might increase them o Study: people who initially killed five bugs in the “practice task” later killed more bugs during the “extermination task” than those who initially killed one bug - Instinct theory of aggression: a theory that describes aggression as innate biological drive o This develops because aggressive animals can ensure that they and their offspring will survive - Women are more likely to experience sexual assault than men are - Children who are highly aggressive early in life are more likely to be aggressive later o Study: people who were the most aggressive at the beginning of the longitudinal study were still the most aggressive at the end of the study - Buss & Perry’s scale of aggression: physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and hostility - Boys and men are more aggressive in general than women and girls - Social learning theory: a theory that describes behaviour as learned by observing or modelling others’ behaviour as well as by the presence of punishments and rewards, or reinforcements - Men and boys are much higher in their rate of physical aggression and only slightly higher in verbal aggression and lower rates of relational aggression (behaviours intended to disrupt relationships) than girls and women o Men are more likely than women to initiate aggression causing physical injury or pain; women are more likely than men to initiate aggression producing psychological or social harm - Gender differences in aggression are larger in naturalistic studies rather than experimental, and when behaviour is measured through observation rather than self-report - Unprovoked men are more aggressive than women, but provoked women and men are about the same - Gender differences in aggression appear when people are identifiable in a given situation, but not when they’re anonymous - Higher levels of physical and relational aggression in an all-girls school in comparison to the mixed school (where boys showed more physical aggression and girls showed more relational aggression) - People high in testosterone experience more arousal, tension, and frustration - Men with high income levels have relatively low rates of adult delinquency regardless of their level of testosterone; men with low income levels show low delinquency if they have low testosterone, but high delinquency if they have high levels of testosterone o Men with high income can dominate in other ways - Men who are high in testosterone and high in fearlessness are the best at fighting fires - Testosterone and aggression may be bidirectional; testosterone may cause aggression, aggression may increase levels of testosterone o Men who hold a gun for 15 minutes show higher levels of testosterone and behave more aggressively toward another participant than those who handle a child’s game - Serotonin: animals that are aggressive show low serotonin levels, and low serotonin levels have been shown to make animals overreact to aversive stimuli How Do Social Psychological Factors Influence Aggression? - Study: people who completed a survey in a room with weapons recommended longer sentences for an offence than those who were in a room with sports equipment - Frustration-aggression theory: a theory that frustration always leads to the desire to behave aggressively, and that aggression is caused by frustration - Study: students called strangers on the phone to request donations to a charity; half the students were told most people would contribute, the other half were told most wouldn’t; the ones who were told most people would contribute showed higher levels of aggression when they said “no” than those who expected few people to contribute o Frustrated because they couldn’t meet goals that they thought were expected of them - Displacement: people’s tendency to aggress against others when the source of frustration is unavailable o Study: participants who completed the difficult task while listening to irritating music, given negative feedback by the experimenter and the confederate gave the highest level of negative ratings of the research assistant; displaced their anger caused by the feedback onto the research assistant o Displacement of aggression is common when the person is provoked and then given the opportunity to think about this provocation (maintains and then intensifies the person’s negative mood) - Aggressive behaviour increases when people are in difficult financial situations o Study: more lynchings when there was more financial stress - Cognitive-neoassociation theory: a theory that describes aggression as caused by experiencing negative affect of any kind, which in turn evokes aggression-related thoughts, memories, feelings, and ideas o Hot temperatures: as temperature increases, so does aggressive acts o Study: hotter summers were associated with more violent crimes o Study: participants are more hostile to confederates when they’re in hot rooms vs. rooms at a comfortable temperature o If we’re aware that hot temperature increases aggressive behaviours, we’re less likely to become aggressive o Aggressive behaviour and temperature may be curvilinear; at extreme heats violence seems to decrease a little o Aggression is also produced when people experience other bad conditions (pollution, threatened self- esteem, crowding, pain, noise, etc.) o Aggressive behaviour can be triggered with the mere presence of an object associated with aggression o Study: participants behaved more aggressively when a gun was present in the room - Arousal-affect/excitation transfer model: a model describing aggression as influenced by both the intensity of the arousal and the type of emotion produced by the stimulus o Any type of arousal can be interpreted as aggression if a person is in a situation that cues aggression o Study: those who engaged in strenuous exercise and were provoked by a confederate delivered higher intensity shocks to the confederate than those who engaged in mild exercise and were therefore less aroused - Children can learn to engage in aggressive behaviour through watching such behaviour o Study: children who watched an adult behave aggressively toward a Bobo doll and were told they couldn’t play with attractive toys and were given boring toys instead, acting toward the toys in the exact same manner - Some children receive positive reinforcement for being aggressive o Study: played video games which either rewarded violence, punished violence, or there was no violence; participants who were rewarded for violence showed increased hostile emotions, aggressive thinking, and aggressive behaviour; punishment had no effect on aggressiveness but did increase hostile emotions - General aggression model: a model proposing that both individual differences and situational factors lead to aggression-related thoughts, feelings, and/or physiological arousal o Study: participants who were higher on trait aggressiveness gave louder noise blasts (punishment to others) than did those who were lower in aggressiveness; those who are high in aggressiveness are more likely to interpret neutral words as having an aggressive component o People high in aggression recognize aggressive words more quickly than those who aren’t o Study: those who played a violent video game were more likely to choose to complete with their partner than those who had played the non-violent video game How Does the Media Influence Aggression? - The relationship between watching aggression on TV and aggressive behaviour is as strong a relationship as smoking and cancer - Study: participants who played the violent game chose higher intensities of noise levels (burst of loud noise through headphones to competitive partner) than those who played the nonviolent game; this effect was particularly strong for men - When families and significant others provide a framework for thinking about violence in media, kids are better equipped to assess any negative impact - People who have a more sinister worldview may feel more fearful and mistrustful of others and take steps to protect themselves - Media can change social unacceptable things to acceptable things - Study: children who had first seen an aggressive TV show were more likely to believe that other children would act aggressively in conflict than those who had seen a non-aggressive TV show - Study: participants who heard the anti-women lyrics gave more hot sauce to female confederates than to male confederates (who expressed that they disliked hot sauce); the type of lyrics had no impact on the amount of hot sauce given to male confederates - Murders increase after watching fights; murders of people of the same race as the person who lost the fight show a particularly sharp increase - Exposure to violence in the media leads to increases in heart rate, blood pressure, and the skin’s conductance of electricity (which can increase aggression); arousal can energize or heighten a feeling that someone is already experiencing and someone can misattribute their feelings for something else, leading them to act out - Study: watching a violent videotape increased participants’ blood pressure - Desensitization/disinhibition: the reduction of physiological reactions to a stimuli (eg. Violence) due to repeated exposure to the stimuli (eg. Violence) - Study: participants with a high history of exposure to violent video games had lower brain reactivity in response to violent photographs (probably because they were desensitized); this predicted increased aggression in later tasks - Study: children who watch a violent film are more tolerant of real-life aggression than those who don’t watch a violent film; children asked to watch over a class, when the class became disruptive students who watched the violent film took longer to seek adult help then those who didn’t watch the violent film How Can We Reduce Aggression? - Punishment: the provision of unpleasant consequences to try to reduce a negative behaviour o Sometimes this can be a problem though: parents who use harsh discipline techniques during their children’s early years have more aggressive children - Modelling non-aggressive responses; discussing the problems of television modelling - Training in communication and problem-solving skills - One of the most effective strategies for reducing aggressing behaviour is to apologize - Increasing empathy; if we feel empathy towards someone, we feel guilty if we hurt them - Study: those who believed they shared a birthday with their partner chose significantly softer levels of noise to inflict on their partner than those who weren’t given any information about similarity to their partner - People who learn information that helps explain a person’s aggressive behaviour before being insulted by this person show less physiological arousal and less annoyance than those who only learn about such circumstances after receiving the insult How Does Culture Relate to Aggression? - Cultures differ in the amount of violence they find acceptable to inflict upon children - People are more likely to approve of corporal punishment if they are male, less educated, and older - Canada is among the countries with a relatively low level of homicide; United States is one of the most violent countries compared to other Western nations - Compared to the rest of the world, the US among the countries with a medium level of homicide, while Russia and Mexico are among the countries with a high level of homicide - South Africa and Columbia have the highest rates of homicide - Study: individualistic societies have higher rates of aggression - Study: narratives of American children had more aggressive content and unfriendly characters compared to narratives of Swedish, German, and Indonesian children; boys in all cultures told stories with more aggressive characteristics and aggressive content than girls - Norms influence aggression; in American, aggression is tolerated and viewed as standing up for oneself; in Indonesia, children are rewarded for cooperation and negotiation - Domestic violence is higher in collectivistic cultures o They’re lower on gender equality and tend to hold more traditional values o Study: 29% of participants from the southern states and 24% of Hispanic participants expressed tolerance for the abuse, in contrast to only 10% of participants from the northern states; people in different cultures differ in how they view abuse against a dating partner - Although everyone is capable of violent outbursts, when cultural norms frame aggression as unacceptable and violence is viewed as taboo, people generally behave non-aggressively - The culture of honour in the American South promotes certain types of aggressive acts (those that serve to protect one’s self and defend one’s honour) o Study: applicants sent letters to apply to companies, stating they had committed a felony – either murdering someone who was seeing their fiancée and then bragging about it at a bar (an “honour killing”) or stealing a car to sell it to pay off debts; the theft letters were responded to about the same from the North, South, and West, but the honour killing letters were responded to with much more warmth in the South and West than the North - Study: Southerners moved out of the way for someone sooner in the control condition than when they were insulted; Northerners behaviour was relatively similar regardless of whether or not they’d been insulted, but Southerners moved out of the way sooner in the control condition Chapter 13: Altruism and Pro-social Behaviour - Pro-social behaviour: any type of action that is intended to benefit/help someone other than oneself o Sometimes behaviour is motivated by a desire to improve one’s own circumstances (ex. sharing a toy only because if child does so, she’ll get a cookie from dad) o Or by a desire to help other perso
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