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[PSYC 2310] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (96 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2310
Professor
Saba Safdar
Study Guide
Final

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UofG
PSYC 2310
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Social Pysch Exam Review
Chapter Notes
Chapter 1 (6 questions)
WHAT IS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY?
Social psychology is about understanding our social connections to each other how they influence and are influenced by what
we think, feel, and do.
Social psychology: a sietifi stud of the a i hih a pesos thoughts, feeligs, ad ehaious ae iflueed  the eal,
imagined, or implied presence of others. (Gordon Allport, 1954)
o Ho people eplai thei o o othes ehaiou e.g. attributions), how people influence others (e.g. persuasion), and
how people connect with each other (e.g. attraction).
Using the Scientific Method
Scientific method: a technique for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, and/or correcting previous knowledge.
Social psychologists form a hypothesis (a testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur) about the
relationship between events and then collect and analyze data to determine the accuracy of the hypothesis.
Social psychologists address:
1) How we think about ourselves
How our self-perception (how we think about ourselves) depends on our sociocultural environment
Our self-representation (how people work to convey images of themselves to others)- convey information using
our habits, interests, and resources (cloths we wear, car we drive)
2) How we think, feel, and act in the social world
Our social perception: how people form impressions of and make inferences about other people and events in
the soial old e.g. h ou est fieds datig elatioship poal ot last
Social cognition is a type of social perception that describes how we think about the social world, and in
particular how we select, interpret, and use information to make judgements about the world (e.g. assuming
that expensive restaurants serve better food than cheap restaurants).
Social influence: the ipat of othe peoples attitudes and behaviours on our thoughts, feelings, and behaviour.
Social influence can be direct (advertising messages) or they may be very subtle (we are less likely to help
someone in need when we are in a big group than if we are alone with the person).
Examines how people are also influenced by what they imagine other people think or do it may be accurate or
not.
Examines the impact of events (including cognitive events/thoughts) on our attitudes and behaviours. (e.g. when
it is really hot out, you are more likely to act aggressively).
3) How our attitudes and behaviour shape the social world (imagined or real)
Self-fulfilling prophecy: the poess  hih peoples epetatios aout a peso lead the to eliit
behaviours that confirms these expectations. This leads people to confirm the beliefs they had, making it difficult
for these beliefs to be disconfirmed.
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HOW HAS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EVOLVED OVER TIME?
Social psychology was first established as a unique discipline on at the start of the 20th century, with the publication of the first
textbook written by Floyd Allport in 1924.
Early research in social psychology was heavily influenced by 3 major factors:
1. Behaviourism: a theo of leaig that desies peoples ehaiou as auied though oditioig.
Behaviour that was followed by a reward would continue, and behaviour that was followed by punishment
would not. This is known as conditioning
This appoah a leal eplai soe ehaiou, ut igoes the ole of peoples thoughts, feeligs ad
attitudes (it is too simplistic).
Example: giving a child a reward for reading might backfire as they might see reading as driven only by
the prospect of a reward rather than by pure enjoyment of reading.
2. Gestalt Psychology: a theory that proposes objects are viewed holistically (as a whole).
Ephasizes the ipotae of lookig at the hole ojet ad ho it appeaed i peoples ids, as opposed to
looking at specific objective parts of the object
Focuses on how people interpret their surroundings and the ogitie poessig that as ioled i peoples
interpretations we sometimes experience more than what is supplied by our sensory perception.
Kurt Lewin often considered the found of social psychology. He focused on the role of social perception on
attitudes and behaviours.
3. Historical Events
Muzafer Sherif personal experience with the dangerous powers of groups during war led him to conduct
studies on group influence.
Stanley Milgram looked at the powerful role of authority in leading to obedience of Nazi Germany.
Positive psychology: a recent branch of psychology that studies individuals strengths and virtues altruism,
attraction and leadership. (see table 1.1 on page 11 for list of virtues and strengths)
IS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY REALLY JUST COMMON SENSE?
We tend to assume things to be more commonplace than they really are.
The I ke it all alog Prole
Hindsight bias: the tendency to see a given outcome as inevitable once the actual outcome is known. However, the exact opposite
stateet ould also hae souded elieale ad oious.
o Example: you would expect that when offered either $20 or $1 to engage in a behaviour, that those receiving the $20
would enjoy the behaviour more. The opposite is in fact correct those being offered $1 enjoyed the behaviour more.
o See page 12-13 for Research Focus on Understanding Gender Differences in Sexual Behaviour (paying for sex, double
standard)
HOW IS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY CONNECTED TO OTHER FIELDS?
Links to Sub-Disciplines in Psychology
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