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Midterm

PSYC 2310 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Muzafer Sherif, Floyd Henry Allport, Kurt Lewin


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2310
Professor
Anneke Olthof
Study Guide
Midterm

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Social Psychology Study Notes Midterm #1
Chapters 1, 3, 4, and 6 20%
50% on lecture, 50% on exam
80 multiple choice
40 from textbook, 40 from lecture
10 questions from each chapter
5 questions from 1st lecture, 7 questions for all other lectures
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCING SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
- What is social psychology?
o Scientific study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviour are influenced
by factors in the social world
o Gordon W. Allport defined it as: an attempt to understand and explain how the
thought, feelings, and behaviour of individuals are influenced by the actual,
imagined, or implied presence of other human beings
- Scientific method: a research method for investigating phenomena, acquiring new
knowledge, and evaluating and integrating previous knowledge
- Hypothesis: educated guess; the relationship between events
- How we think about ourselves (self-perception):
o Self-presentation: how we present our ideas about ourselves to others; how
people work to convey certain images of themselves to others
Ex. The car we drive, the clothes or jewellery we wear
- How we think, feel, and act in the social world:
o Social perception: how people form impressions of and make inferences about
other people and events in the social world
o Social cognition: how we think about people and the social world (how we
select, interpret, and use information to make judgments about the world)
o Social influence: the impact of other people’s attitudes and behaviours on our
thoughts, feelings, and behaviour
Ex. Advertising messages; don’t feel like helping
- How Our Attitudes and Behaviour Shape the Social World
o Self-fulfilling prophecy: the process by which people’s expectations about a
person lead them to elicit behaviour the confirms these expectations

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These actions elicit the behaviour that is expected. This prophecy leads
people to confirm whatever beliefs they have, and makes it difficult for
these beliefs to be disconfirmed.
- Floyd Allport first social psychology textbook ever written.
- Behaviourism: a theory of learning that describes people’s behaviour as acquired
through conditioning
o Conditioning: behaviour that is rewarded will continue
o Behaviourist approach ignores the role of people’s thoughts, feelings, and
attitudes THUS is too simplistic to explain other behaviour
- Gestalt Psychology: a theory that proposes objects are viewed holistically
o Importance of looking at the whole object and how it appears in people’s minds,
as opposed to looking at specific objective parts of the object
o Kurt Lewin: considered the founder of modern social psychology trained in the
Gestalt approach; he offered one of the earliest theories in cognitive social
psychology; research focused on the role of social perception in influencing
people’s behaviour, the nature of group dynamics, and the factors contributing
to stereotyping and prejudice
- Muzafer Sherif: carried out a series of studies on group influence, and how introducing
tasks that required cooperation between groups could reduce intergroup conflict
- Stanley Milgram: studies on the powerful role of authority in leading to obedience
- *WW2 increased research in social psych for Sherif, Milgram, and Lewin*
- Positive psychology: studies individuals’ strengths and virtues
o Positive psychology aims to improve and fulfill normal people’s lives
o The roots of positive psychology are in humanistic psychology
Which focuses on individual potential and fulfilment
- Hindsight bias: the tendency to see a given outcome as inevitable once the actual
outcome is known
o Ex. “absence makes the heart grow fonder” – ya I knew that makes sense. OR the
opposite saying “out of sight, out of mind” – ya I knew that.
o Also known as the “I knew it all along” phenomenon
- Socio-cultural perspective: describes people’s behaviour and mental processes as being
shapes in part by their social and/or cultural context.
o Individualistic: a view of the self as distinct, autonomous, self0contained, and
endowed with unique attributes
o Collectivistic: a view of the self as part of a larger social network, including
family, friends, and co-workers
- Social constructionism: the view that there is no absolute reality and that our
knowledge and what we understand to be reality are socially constructed

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CHAPTER 3 THE SELF: SELF-PERCEPTION AND SELF-PRESENTATION
- Self-concept: an individual’s overall beliefs about his or her own attributes
- Self-esteem: an individual’s evaluation of his or her own worth
- Self-awareness: state of being aware of oneself as an object of one’s thoughts
- Functions of self:
o Self as interpersonal tool (in order for us to have relationships with others we
need to have a relatively stable identity)
o Self as decision maker (decisions reflect goals and values)
o Self as regulatory system (maintain itself despite the individual’s diverse and
sometimes contradictory goals; take care of one’s interpersonal relationships,
regulate emotional states, and organize information that is related to certain
tasks)
Ex. Regulatory: in order to achieve goal, must resist temptation to party
too hard.
Decision maker: wants to become psych professor; decides to achieve
this goal must work hard
Interpersonal: known as friend that everyone can turn to for help
- Affective forecasting: the process of predicting the impact of both positive and negative
events on mood
- Self-discrepancy theory: the theory that our self-concept if influenced by the gap
between how we actually see ourselves and how we want to see ourselves
- Self-awareness theory: when people focus on their own behaviour, they are motivated
to either change their behaviour (so their attitudes and behaviour are in line) or escape
from self-awareness (to avoid noticing this contradiction)
- Self-perception theory: we look to our own behaviour to determine our attitudes and
beliefs
- Facial feedback hypothesis: the hypothesis that changes in facial expression an lead to
changes in emotion
- Over-justification: the phenomenon in which receiving external rewards for a given
behaviour can undermine the intrinsic motivation for engaging in this behaviour
o Ex. Some high schools have policies that require students to engage in a
volunteer activity prior to graduation. These were developed in part to expose
students to the benefits of volunteering, some research shows that after being
forced to volunteer, students become less interested in volunteering in the
future compared to student who were given a choice to volunteer
- Social comparison theory: the theory that people evaluate their own abilities and
attributes by comparing themselves to other people
- How do people maintain a positive self-concept?
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