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PSYCH 1200- Year Review.docx

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PSYC 2310
Anneke Olthof

PSYCH1200 REVIEWChapter 1 Psychology The Science of Behaviour 3 Questions Psychology scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence itBehaviourACTIONS we can observe directly and MENTAL EVENTSthoughts feelingsBiological individual and environmental factors are taken into accountPlays an important role in solving human problems and promoting human welfarePsychology is a basic and applied scienceBasic Research quest for knowledge purely for its own sake quest for knowledge o Goals describe how people behave and identify factors that influence behaviourApplied Research designed to solve specific problems application of knowledge o Uses principles discovered in basic research to solve practical problemsGoals of Psychology 1DESCRIBE how people and other animals behave 2 EXPLAIN and understand the causes of these behaviours 3 PREDICT how people and animals will behave under certain conditions 4 INFLUENCE or control behaviour through knowledge and control its causes Six Perspectives of BehaviourPerspectives theoretical vantage points from which to analyze behaviour and its causesSix Major Perspectives biological cognitive psychodynamic behavioural humanistic and sociocultural each addresses timeless philosophical questions1 Biological PerspectiveMindBody Dualism the belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical lawsMonism the mind is not a separate entity the mind and body are one common viewBiological Perspective focuses on the role of biological factors in behaviour including biochemical and brain processes as well as genetic and evolutionary factors o Galvani severed frog leg stimulation of brainbrain damage o Lashley brain damage and learningmemory abilitiesEvolution and Behaviour Charles Darwin Theory of Evolution o Natural Selection characteristics which increase likelihood of survival are preserved in the gene pool and become more common over time o Evolutionary Psychology roleof evolutionary processes natural selection in development of psychological mechanisms and social behaviour of humans o Sociobiology social behaviours are built into the human species as a result of evolution Behaviour Genetics the study of how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factors o Our development and behaviour are affected by the genetic blueprint with which we were born identical twins separated at birth still behave similarly2 Cognitive PerspectiveFocuses on MENTAL PROCESSES influence motives emotions and behavioursCognitive Perspective views humans as rational information processors and problem solvers and focuses on the mental processes that influence behavioursSTRUCTURALISM Wundt the analysis of the mind in terms of its basic elements o Sensations are the basic elements of consciousness introspection looking withinFUNCTIONALISM James focuses on the functions of consciousness and behaviour in helping organisms adapt to their environment and satisfy their needs the whys rather than the whos o Influenced by Darwins theory of evolution adaptive behaviourGESTALT PSYCHOLOGY Focuses on how elements of experience are organized into wholes o The whole is greater and different from the sum of its parts o Kohler apes intelligence relationships and insight ability to solve problems o Piaget studied children cognitive developmentMODERN COGNITIVE SCIENCE artificial intelligence computer models of complex human thought reasoning and problem solving computer models duplicate natural cognitive process o Donald Hebb suggested cell assemblya group of brain cells whos connections are assumed to be strengthened with repeated usage o How people recognize and use speechcreative problem solvingSOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM realityis our own mental creation little shared reality exists3 Psychodynamic PerspectivePSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVEcauses of behaviour within the working of our personality emphasizing the role of unconscious processes and unresolved conflicts from the pastFreuds Great Challenge humans view themselves as creatures ruled by reason and conscious thought but Freud emphasized the role of psychological forces incontrolling behaviour o Psychoanalysisthe analysis of internal unconscious psychological forces o Unresolved past conflicts Our adult personality is strongly influenced by early childhood experiences and by the ways in which we cope with the internal forces that govern our behaviour as we grow upinborn sexualaggressive drives o CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS Biological there are mechanisms which produce emotional reactions Cognitive there are aspects of informational processes outside awareness4 The Behavioural Perspective BEHAVIOURAL PERSPECTIVE external environment shaping and governing our actions o Behaviour determined by learned habits past experiences immediate environmentJohn B Watson behaviourism emphasizes environmental control of behaviourBF Skinner behaviourist a person does not act upon the world the world acts upon himCOGNITIVE BEHAVIOURISM Our mental abilities allow us to control our own behaviour and influence our environmentWe learn new behaviours by observing the actions of others storing the information in memory and imitating the behaviours o Alberta Bandura bidirectional relationship between person and environment5 The Humanistic PerspectiveHUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE emphasizes personal freedom choice and selfactualization o Rollo May and Carl Rogers we decide our behaviours and attitudeTerror Management Theory An innate desire for continued life combined with the human awareness of death creates an anxiety called existential terror People who see themselves as living a good life have higher self esteem and lower death anxiety 6 Sociocultural PerspectiveSOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE culture is transmitted to its membersdifferent cultures o Culture enduring values beliefs behaviours and traditions shared by a group of people o Individualism personal goals vs Collectivism group orientated goalsachievements Fields within PsychologyTwo main sectionso Experimental Psychologist seek to understand behaviour by conducting research o Applied Psychologist use accumulated knowledge to help people Biological Cognitive Psychodynamic Conception of The human animal The human as a thinker The human as human nature and information controlled by inner processor forces and conflicts Major causal Genetic and evolutionary Thought anticipation Unconscious motives factors in factors brain biochemicalperceptions and memory conflicts defences behaviour early childhoodPredominant Study of brain behaviour Study of cognitive Intensive observations focus and relations role of processes highly of personality methods of hormones biochem controlled lab conditions processes in clinical discovery Factors genetics research settings Some labBehavioural Humanistic SocioculturalConception of The human as a reactor to Human as Free seeking Human as a social human nature the environment agent being Major causal Past learning experiences Free will choice innate Social forces norms factors in and behavioural drive towards self interactions culture behaviour consequences actualization meaning social environment Predominant Study of learning Study of meaning Comparisons of focus and processes in lab and real values purpose selfbehaviour and mental methods of world observation concept emotion processesdiscovery
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