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Ch 10.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2310
Professor
c
Semester
Winter

Description
Ch  10     • Intergroup  relations:  the  ways  people  in  groups  perceive,  think  about,  feel   about,  and  act  toward  people  in  other  groups   How  do  different  theories  explain  intergroup  relations   • Important  aspect=collective  behavior  in  crowds   Early  research  and  theories  of  crowd  behavior   • Le  bon  describes  3  processes  that  are  specific  to  crowds   • Anonymity:  people  in  a  crowd  become  anonymous  and  are  therefore  less   responsible  for  their  actions   • Suggestibility:  when  people’s  social  constraints  are  loosened  they  become   more  suggestible   • When  some  individuals  show  aggression  others  follow  suite   • Contagion:  the  irrationality  and  acts  of  violence  are  contagious  and  move   through  the  crowd   • Argued  that  crowds  make  people  crazy  and  result  in  destructive  acts   • The  collective  mind  allows  people  to  shirk  responsibility  and  resort  to   instinct  for  actions   • Allport  argued  that  groups  are  still  individuals   • Said  crowds  just  let  people  do  what  they  want  to  do   Deindividuation   • Sheriff,ashe  and  zimbardo  argued  groups  and  crowds  cannot  be  explained   just  by  looking  at  individuals   • Zimbardo  offered  deindiviuation  theory   • Says  that  in  groups  people  are  less  likely  to  follow  normal  rules  of  behavior   • On  loses  self  awareness  as  a  distinct  individual   • Feels  less  compelled  to  follow  societal  norms   • Factors  that  cause  it:   • Anonymity   • Accountability   • Decrease  in  self  awareness   Anonymity   • Individuals  are  less  distinguishable   • Social  circumstance  that  can  lead  to  deindiviuation   • Can  lead  to  aggression  from  social  environment  cues   • Situational  cues  seem  to  be  the  biggest  factor  in  determining  behavior  by   anonymity   • Prosocial  behavior  can  also  be  stimulated   • Not  just  negative   Accountability   • In  group  settings  people  feel  less  exposed   • If  everyone  else  is  doing  it  you  feel  less  responsible   • Results  in  group  polarization   Decrease  in  self  awareness   • Lose  sense  of  self   • When  placed  in  front  of  a  mirror  we  engage  in  better  behavior   • Less  aware  of  self,  but  more  aware  of  the  group   Social  identity  theory   • Groups  act  in  response  to  each  other   • People  don’t  lose  their  identity  but  take  on  a  new  one   • In  crowds  you  experience  a  change  of  identity  rather  than  a  loss   • Group  goal  and  identity  regulate  behavior  when  said  membership  is   apparent   • Groups  do  not  exist  as  isolated  islands   • There  are  always  other  groups  presence   • Even  if  the  presence  is  not  physical   • Social  identity  theory  says   • That  people  are  looking  to  increase  self  esteem  of  their  personal  and  social   identity   • Try  to  affiliate  with  similar  groups   • Threats  to  esteem  reinforce  a  need  for  in  group  acceptance   • In  group  favoritism/outgroup  derogation  occur  more  often  when  the  groups   staus  Is  threatened   • Status  of  an  individual  in  the  group  is  threatened     • If  the  group  is  small   Status  of  the  in  group   • Seeing  another  group  fail  can  make  you  happier   Status  within  the  group   • Having  low  status  in  your  group  makes  you  put  down  out  group  more   • Need  to  overcompensate   Group  size   • Smaller=more  loyalty   • 4  types  of  proportions  for  group  composition   • uniform:  all  one  gender   • skewed:  mostly  one  gender   • tilted:  majority  of  one  gender,  minority  of  another   • balanced:  equal  numbers  of  both  genders   • 3  perceptual  phenomena  for  group  dynamics   • visibility,  polarization,  assimilation   • in  a  token  group  where  women  are  slight  in  number   • they  are  more  visible   • the  men  became  more  aware  of  the  differences  between  them  and  the   women   • the  women  are  subjected  to  assimilation  in  regards  to  stereotypes   How  does  intergroup  conflict  develop   • realistic  conflict  theory  and  relative  deprivation  theory   Realistic  conflict  theory   • says  that  animosity  between  groups  is  a  result  if  individual  competition  for   limited  resources   • these  negative  relations  do  not  occur  of  the  members  are  in  the  same  group   • sheriff’s  study  with  campers  showed  the  competition  and  cooperation  can   from  quickly   • the  people  in  the  different  groups  knew  each  other,  yet  that  did  not  matter  in   a  competitive  scenario   • mirror  image  perception:  seeing  our  actions  as  just  and  the  others  as  wrong   even  though  they  are  the  same   • both  groups  see  the  actions  as  a  result  of  the  other  side   Relative  Deprivation  theory   • belief  that  one  fares  poorly  compared  to  people  in  other  groups   • emphasizes  perception  of  circumstance   • idea  that  you  have  less  than  what  you  are  entitled  to   • occurs  even  when  basic  needs  are  met   • people  get  upset  because  they  are  hungrier/poorer  that  what  they  feel  they   should  be   • 5  preconditions   • not  having  x   • wanting  x   • feeling  entitled  to  x   • x  is  attainable   • not  feeling  responsible  for  not  having  x   • Runicman  made  a  distinction  between  two  forms  of  relative  deprivation   • 1,  fraternalistic  relative  deprivation  refers  to  feeling  deprived  as  a  result  of   comparing  the  status  of  one’s  group  with  that  of  another  group   • 2,  Egoistic  relative  deprivation  refers  to  feeling  deprived  as  a  result  of   comparing  one’s  status  with  that  of  similar  others   • fraternalistic  not  egoistic  is  associated  with  intergroup  attitudes/conflict   • best  pre
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