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PSYC 2310- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 38 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2310
Professor
Saba Safdar
Study Guide
Final

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U of G
PSYC 2310
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Tuesday, September 12, 2017
Week ONE
PSYC 2310 - Tess Kern
Readings:
The Nature of Self (lecture)
-“Know Thyself” - Solon, the Greek thinker!
-“No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the
main.” - John Donne (English poet and priest)!
-Who are you?!
self-concept of self-knowledge (the known or the “me”)!
self-awareness (the knower or the “I”)!
-Three Features of the Self ( ) :!
1. self includes the body!
2. self includes the social entity (one’s name, occupation, ethnicity- when one belongs to a
subset of a particular population).!
3. self is the active agent (the decision making in oneself)!
-Functions of Selfhood:!
1. self is an interpersonal tool!
2. self makes choices!
3. self regulation!
-Self knowledge comes from self-comparison and feedback from others.!
-when one is born, they are self as a blank slate: not totally true.
self-knowledge is obtained from others but it is heavily filtered through biases of others,
such as politeness, one’s inability to process criticism, etc. !
so, is it possible to have accurate self-knowledge? yes, according to autobiography
writers. in the 16th century, a french writer wrote one of the first ever autobiographies ever
- self-knowledge is the most complete form of knowledge imaginable. BUT it is a
complete no from psychoanalysts - it is very hard to obtain. !
-Introspection: the process of looking inward and examining our thoughts and feelings. !
one way of developing self knowledge.!
Limitations:!
1. people don’t engage in introspection often.!
2. reasons for some of our behaviours are hidden from our conscious awareness!
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Tuesday, September 12, 2017
-Healthy Self-Knowledge: according to Taylor & Brown (1988), good mental health includes
several systematic distortions:!
1. exaggerating positive self-evaluation (people tend to think they are a better than
average driver).!
2. exaggerating perception of control (because we live in an unpredictable world- people
need to live life under an illusion of control so they don’t live in fear).!
3. having unrealistic optimism.!
Caution: there is an optimal margin of illusion for healthy adjustment.!
-Self Esteem: a sense of personal worth. there are two roots to self-esteem:!
1. social feedback!
2. direct experience of ecacy!
empirical studies show that self-esteem is stable.!
the development of self-esteem (Orth & Robins, 2014):!
1. self-esteem increases from adolescence to middle adulthood, and peaks at 50-60
years old. it drops as you continue aging because you lose autonomy.!
2. self-esteem is relatively stable.!
3. high self-esteem predicts success and well-being in life domains such as
relationships, work, and health. !
to increase our self-esteem we engage in social comparison:!
1. downward comparison (comparing with someone who lacks in something you don’t)!
2. upward comparison (comparing with someone who has achieved a lot and use it to
motivate yourself - “if he can achieve it, I surely can”). make sure you’re comparing
your actual self and not your ideal self.!
3. similar comparison (gives you a good sense of your own ability)!
-The Dark Side of Self-Esteem:!
people whose inflated favourable self-esteem is threatened often react by putting others
down, sometimes with violence. !
for example, gang leaders will become aggressive when others challenge them. !
self-aggrandizing form of self-esteem vs. genuine self-esteem (Salmivalli 1999):!
-Cycle of Self-Esteem:!
Low Self-Esteem (1) Negative Expectation (2) Low Eort, High Anxiety (3) Failure (4)
Self Blame (feeds into notion of self esteem)!
-Self- Awareness: refers to the state in which one’s attention is focused on oneself and one is
comparing self with a set of standards.!
-state & trait!
#2
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