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Experiments in Social Psychology.docx

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PSYC 2310
Saba Safdar

1 Experiments in Social Psychology (Midterm One) Chapter 1 Normal Triplett: “Do cyclists cycle faster when competing against the clock or against other cyclists (assuming all at the same level of expertise)?”  Studied social facilitation WW2: increased research in the field of social psychology  Is this abnormal or do we all have this capability in us? Are we the same afterwards? Gordon Allport: prejudice and stereotypes and founded SPSSI Muzaher Sherif: studied social influence after being confined in Turkish prison  Found that introducing tasks that required groups to work together decreased intergroup conflict Kurt Lewin: introduced action research (aimed at changing people‟s attitudes and behaviours)  Role of social perception, group dynamics, prejudice and stereotypes Solonman Asch: studied conformity Leon Festinger: studied cognitive dissonance Stanley Milgram: studied obedience Chapter 3 Introspection: 2 groups watched same video, one group had loud noise in background, afterwards asked to rate the video and group was asked if they thought the noise in the background influenced their ratings, they said yes even though there was no difference between the two groups  Come up with reasons but we do not have access to some of the reasons and explanations for our behaviour 2 Dark Side of Self Esteem: participants asked to write an essay and confederate randomly gives individuals false feedback (+ or -), participants then able to interact with confederate doing a task, if they do something wrong the participant can administer a shock, those with inflated self esteem and received negative feedback were the most aggressive Increasing Self-Awareness: had participants sit in front of a mirror - you are now thinking about yourself more and become motivated to change your behaviour to escape the self-awareness (conversely, alcohol decreases your self-awareness)  Take exam in room filled with mirrors, see your reflection and less likely to cheat Facial Feedback Hypothesis (Self Perception Theory): those who smile perceive themselves as happy (“I am smiling therefore I must be happy”) and in turn feel happier Cultural Differences (“Who am I?_____”): 21 lines they had to fill out (both Canadian and Japanese participants), Canadians said more about the independent self (“I am an anxious person”) than Japanese which referred more to the interdependent self (“I am the eldest child”) Chapter 4: Fundamental Attribution Error: participants read one of 2 essays: one essay the student had a choice to write for or against Fidel Castro, in the other essay the student was forced to write for Fidel Castro, participants were then asked what the student‟s attitude was towards Fidel Castro (you should be able to conclude something if you read the „free choice‟ essay and nothing if you read the „forced‟ essay), found that even students that were forced to write for Fidel Castro were perceived as having positive attitudes towards him  Why? We assume that it is easier to behave in a way that is consistent with our attitudes (good essay - probably because they actually do like Fidel Castro) and if behaviour is caused by external cues we assume that these situational cues will be obvious Misunderstanding Situations (F.A.E.): walk by researcher at cannon and they ask if you will write an essay for them - 70% said no, in 3 research participation study and researcher asks if you will write an essay for them - 70– said yes  Often misperceive the effect situation has on our own behaviour, we are not accurate in predicting our own behaviour Misperceiving Behaviour (F.A.E.): sent 8 normal people to psychiatric hospital, were told to answer all questions normally but tell the professional that you hear voices in your head saying “empty” and “hollow”, 7 of the 8 were admitted and 19 days later were kicked out because other patients said they were faking, hospital responded that they “weren‟t ready” so Rosenhan stated within the next 6 months he would send more people, 6 months later many patients rejected and Rosenhan didn‟t send any of them  Perceptual Assimilation: we see what we expect to see, expectations influence our perception Chapter 6: Implicit Association Test (1950s): asked to press negative word when an image of a White person is shown and a positive word when an image of a Black person is shown and then vice versa, found that participants were quicker to associate positive words with White people and negative words with Black people, this effect was also seen in Blacks (they assume the position of society)  Example of a covert measure (to see how people mentally associate things - reduces reactivity) Relationship between attitudes and behaviour is complicated… Corey‟s Study on Cheating: asked participants and 90% said that cheating was wrong, were then given the opportunity to grade their own paper and 50% cheated LaPierre‟s Study on Prejudice: travelled with Chinese couple (Chinese at the time were discriminated against) to 251 institutions to see if they got served or separated by ethnicity - were only rejected by 1 establishment, later sent questionnaire to these establishments asking if they would serve a Chinese couple and majority said no even though they did just a few months earlier Correspondence Principle: asked attitude towards using birth control (r=0.08), attitude towards using birth control pills (r=0.32) and attitude towards using birth control pills for the next 2 years (r=0.57) 4  Attitudes are a better predictor f
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