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Psych 2310 Midterm #1 Review Notes.docx

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PSYC 2310
Saba Safdar

Chapter one Social psychology a scientific study of the way in which a persons thoughts feelings and behaviours are influenced by the real imagined or implied presence of others Scientific method A technique for investigating phenomena acquiring new knowledge and or correcting previous knowledge Social psychologists form an educated guess called a hypothesis Hypothesis A testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur Gordon Allports study Social psychology is a scientific study of the way in which a persons thoughts feelings and behaviors are influenced by real imagined or implied presence of others Three distinct but interrelated topics that social psychologists addresss how we think about ourselves how we think feel and act in the social world how our attitudes and behavior shape the social world imagined or real How we think about ourselves Selfperception how we think about ourselves Selfpresentation how people work to convey certain images of themselves to others how people form impressions and make inferences about other people and events in the social world formed easily and frequently Social cognition How we think about the social world and in particular how we select interpret and use information to make judgements about the world may be accurate eg thinking that expensive restaurants serve better food than cheap ones may be inaccurate eg people being more scared to travel by plane then by car when in reality the plane is safer Social influence The impact of other peoples attitudes and behaviors on our thoughts feelings and behavior may be direct eg advertisements are deliberate efforts to influence our attitudes and behavior may be indirect eg we are less likely to help someone when we are in a large group then when we are by ourselves because we dont feel personally responsible How our attitudes and behavior shape the social world Selffulfilling prophecy The process by which people expectations about a person lead them to elicit behavior that confirms these expectations peoples expectations about a person cause them to illicit specific behavior to that personin turn this behavior causes the person to act how we assumed they would actHow has social psychology evolved over time Behaviorism A theory of learning that describes peoples behavior as acquired through conditioning rewards and punishment can condition behavior Gestalt psychology A theory that proposes objects as viewed holistically looking at the whole object and how is appeared in peoples mindsas opposed to looking at certain parts sharp contrast to behaviorism focused on how people interpret their surroundings and the cognitive processing that was involved in peoples interpretations we sometimes experience more than our sensory perception Kurt Lewin Often considered the founder of social psychology research focused on the role of social perception in influencing peoples behavior the nature of group dynamics and the factors contributing to stereotyping and prejudice Positive psychology A recent branch of psychology that studies individuals strengths and virtuesroots are in humanistic psychology individual potential and fulfilment Hindsight bias The tendency to see the given outcome as inevitable once the actual outcome is known 20 versus 1 problem cognitive dissonance Personality Psychology focus on the role of individual differencesThe aspects of people personality that make them different from other people explains why different people react differently in situations
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