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PSYC 2310

Chapter 1- Psychology: The Science of Behaviour (3 Questions) Psychology: scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence it. - Behaviour = ACTIONS we can observe directly and MENTAL EVENTS (thoughts, feelings) - Biological, individual, and environmental factors are taken into account - Plays an important role in solving human problems and promoting human welfare Psychology is a basic and applied science: - Basic Research= quest for knowledge purely for its own sake (quest for knowledge) o Goals: describe how people behave and identify factors that influence behaviour - Applied Research= designed to solve specific problems (application of knowledge) o Uses principles discovered in basic research to solve practical problems Goals of Psychology: 1. DESCRIBE: how people and other animals behave 2. EXPLAIN: and understand the causes of these behaviours 3. PREDICT: how people and animals will behave under certain conditions 4. INFLUENCE: or control behaviour through knowledge and control its causes Six Perspectives of Behaviour: - Perspectives= theoretical vantage points from which to analyze behaviour and its causes - Six Major Perspectives: biological, cognitive, psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, and socio-cultural (each addresses timeless philosophical questions) 1- Biological Perspective: - Mind-Body Dualism- the belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical laws - Monism- the mind is not a separate entity, the mind and body are one (common view) - Biological Perspective- focuses on the role of biological factors in behaviour, including biochemical and brain processes as well as genetic and evolutionary factors o Galvani- (severed frog leg) stimulation of brain/brain damage o Lashley- brain damage and learning/memory abilities - Evolution and Behaviour: Charles Darwin (Theory of Evolution) o Natural Selection- characteristics which increase likelihood of survival are preserved in the gene pool and become more common over time o Evolutionary Psychology- role of evolutionary processes (natural selection) in development of psychological mechanisms and social behaviour of humans o Sociobiology- social behaviours are built into the human species as a result of evolution - Behaviour Genetics- the study of how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factors o Our development and behaviour are affected by the genetic blueprint with which we were born (identical twins separated at birth still behave similarly) 2- Cognitive Perspective: - Focuses on MENTAL PROCESSES influence motives, emotions, and behaviours - Cognitive Perspective- views humans as rational information processors and problem solvers and focuses on the mental processes that influence behaviours - STRUCTURALISM- (Wundt) the analysis of the mind in terms of its basic elements o Sensations are the basic elements of consciousness (introspection- looking within) - FUNCTIONALISM- (James) focuses on the functions of consciousness and behaviour in helping organisms adapt to their environment and satisfy their needs (the whys rather than the whos) o Influenced by Darwin’s theory of evolution (adaptive behaviour) - GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY- Focuses on how elements of experience are organized into wholes o The whole is greater, and different from the sum of its parts o Kohler (apes)- intelligence (relationships) and insight (ability to solve problems) o Piaget- studied children= cognitive development - MODERN COGNITIVE SCIENCE- artificial intelligence= computer models of complex human thought, reasoning and problem solving, computer models duplicate natural cognitive process o Donald Hebb suggested cell assembly – a group of brain cells who’s connections are assumed to be strengthened with repeated usage o How people recognize and use speech/creative problem solving - SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM- “reality” is our own mental creation, little shared reality exists 3- Psychodynamic Perspective: - PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE- causes of behaviour within the working of our personality, emphasizing the role of unconscious processes and unresolved conflicts from the past - Freud’s Great Challenge- humans view themselves as creatures ruled by reason and conscious thought, but Freud emphasized the role of psychological forces in controlling behaviour o Psychoanalysis – the analysis of internal unconscious psychological forces o Unresolved past conflicts- Our adult personality is strongly influenced by early childhood experiences and by the ways in which we cope with the internal forces that govern our behaviour as we grow up (inborn sexual aggressive drives) o CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS- Biological= there are mechanisms which produce emotional reactions, Cognitive= there are aspects of informational processes outside awareness 4- The Behavioural Perspective: - BEHAVIOURAL PERSPECTIVE- external environment shaping and governing our actions. o Behaviour determined by: learned habits, past experiences, immediate environment - John B. Watson- behaviourism, emphasizes environmental control of behaviour - B.F Skinner (behaviourist)- a person does not act upon the world, the world acts upon him - COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURISM- Our mental abilities allow us to control our own behaviour and influence our environment. We learn new behaviours by observing the actions of others, storing the information in memory, and imitating the behaviours o Alberta Bandura- bidirectional relationship between person and environment 5- The Humanistic Perspective: - HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE- emphasizes personal freedom, choice and self-actualization o Rollo May and Carl Rogers: we decide our behaviours and attitude. - Terror Management Theory- An innate desire for continued life, combined with the human awareness of death, creates an anxiety called existential terror. People who see themselves as living a good life have higher self esteem and lower death anxiety. 6- Sociocultural Perspective: - SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE- culture is transmitted to its members (different cultures) o Culture- enduring values, beliefs, behaviours, and traditions shared by a group of people o Individualism (personal goals) vs. Collectivism (group orientated goals/achievements) Fields within Psychology: - Two main sections: o Experimental Psychologist= seek to understand behaviour by conducting research o Applied Psychologist= use accumulated knowledge to help people Biological Cognitive Psychodynamic Conception of The human animal The human as a thinker The human as human nature and information controlled by inner processor forces and conflicts Major causal Genetic and evolutionary Thought, anticipation, Unconscious motives, factors in factors: brain, biochemical perceptions and memory conflicts, defences, behaviour early childhood Predominant Study of brain behaviour Study of cognitive Intensive observations focus and relations, role of processes, highly of personality methods of hormones, biochem. controlled lab conditions processes in clinical discovery Factors, genetics research settings. Some lab Behavioural Humanistic Sociocultural Conception of The human as a reactor to Human as Free seeking Human as a social human nature the environment agent being Major causal Past learning experiences Free will, choice, innate Social forces, norms, factors in behaviour and behavioural drive towards self interactions, culture, consequences actualization, meaning social environment Predominant Study of learning Study of meaning, Comparisons of focus and processes in lab and real values, purpose, self- behaviour and mental methods of discovery world (observation) concept, emotion processes Chapter 2- Studying Behaviour Scientifically (6 Questions) Scientific Principles in Psychology: - Scientific Attitudes: curiosity, scepticism, and open-mindedness are the driving forces behind scientific inquiry. - Gathering Evidence: Steps in the Scientific Process: science involves a continuous interplay between observing and explaining events The Scientific Method: o Step 1: review existing theories (must be testable) o Step 2: formulate a hypothesis (tentative explanation or prediction)  Hypothesis is translated into a specific IF-THEN statement o Step 3: test the hypothesis by gathering evidence (conducting research) o Step 4: collect data (done empirically) o Step 5: analyzing the information using stats (draw tentative conclusions) o Step 6: Attempt to build theories (a set of statements explain how and why) o Step 7: develop a new hypothesis (scientific process becomes self-correcting) - Two Main advantages of the Scientific Method: o Requires researchers to be extremely clear and precise o Trains researchers to be sceptical and critical of both their own and other’s work Two Approaches to Understanding Behaviour: - Hindsight Understanding= a method to understand life using after-the-fact reasoning o Main Problem: past problems can be described in a number of creative ways - Understanding through Prediction, Control, and Theory Building: If we understand the causes of a given behaviour, then we should be able to predict the conditions under which that behaviour will occur in the future. If we can control the factors, then we should be able to produce a specific behaviour. - Theory development is the strongest test of scientific understanding because good theories generate an integrated network of predictions: o It incorporates existing facts within a single broad framework o It is testable. It generates new hypotheses o The predictions are supported by the findings of new research o Conforms to the Law of Parsimony: simpler theory is the preferred one - Even when a theory is supported it is not considered absolute truth Defining and Measuring Variables: - A variable is any characteristic that can vary (gender, age, non-material concepts) - An operational difference defines a variable in terms of the specific procedures used to produce or measure it. Translates an abstract term into something measurable. - Measurement Processes: o Self Report Measures: ask people to report on their own feelings, behaviours  Social desirability bias: tendency to answer untruthfully o Reports by Others: obtaining reports made by other people o Physiological Measures: other people measure what is happening inside a person o Behavioural Observations: observe a person’s overt behaviours  Archival Measures: already existing records/documents  Humans may behave differently when they know they’re being watched Methods of Research: - Three research methods: descriptive, correlation, experimental methods Descriptive Methods: record observations or surveys - Descriptive methods identify how humans behave in natural settings o Provides info. on the diversity of behaviour o Can be used to test a hypothesis o Yields clues about cause-effect relationships (later tested experimentally) - Case Studies: an in-depth analysis of an individual, group or event by studying a single case in great detail to discover principles of behaviour to make generalizations o Advantages: source of new ideas, collect data about a rare phenomenon, challenge the validity of human theory, illustrate effective intervention programs o Disadvantages: poor method for determining cause-effect relationships, uncertainty about the generalizations, lack of objectivity (researcher) - Naturalistic Observation: observation of behaviour in a nature setting o Effective, but requires a great deal of time (years) and funding o Can sort out conflicting self-reports o No casual conclusions about relationship variables (simultaneous influences) o Possibility of bias, people may act differently when they are being watched - Survey Research: information about a topic is obtained by administering questionnaires, or interviews to many people about their attitudes, opinions, behaviours o Population= all the individuals in a particular group of interest o Sample= a subset of individuals drawn from the population of interest o Representative Sample= reflects the important characteristics of a population  Confident findings portray the population as a whole o Random Sample= select individuals from a population where each person has an equal chance of being selected, but can produce distorted results  Large Samples are better than small ones  Smaller representative is better than large unrepresentative o Internet surveys are an effective, convenient way of gathering information o Three major drawbacks:  Unrepresentative samples lead to faulty generalizations  Surveys rely on participant’s self-reports  Survey data cannot be used to draw conclusions about cause and effect Correlational Research: Measure the Strength of a relationship between two or more events - Correlational research involves three steps: o The researcher measures one variable (X) o The research measures a second variable (Y) o The researcher determines statistically whether X and Y are related  Involves measuring variables, not manipulating them - Major disadvantage: does not determine causation - Correlation Coefficient: indicates direction and strength of the association o Values range from -1.00 - +1.00  The larger the absolute value, the stronger the correlation o Positive Correlation: as one variable increases, so does the other  Depicted by a positive correlation coefficient o Negative Correlation: as one variable increases, the other decreases  Depicted by a negative correlation coefficient o Zero Correlation: no relationship between variables  Depicted by a zero correlation coefficient - Scatter plots can also be used to depict descriptive statistics - Advantages: identifies associations in real-world contexts that can be studied under controlled laboratory conditions, some conditions that cannot be studied experimentally due to ethics can be studied correlatively, allows us to make predictions Experiments: manipulations to establish cause and effect relationships between events - Three essential characteristics of an experiment: o Researcher manipulates one variable o Research measures whether manipulation produces change in a second variable o Researcher attempts to control factors that might have influenced outcomes - Independent Variable: the factor that is manipulated by the experimenter - Dependant variable: the factor that is measured by the experimenter that may be influenced by the independent variable - Experimental Group: the group that receives the treatment (active level of the I.V.) - Control Group: not exposed to the treatment (zero-level of the I.V) o Provide a standard of behaviour to which the E. Group can be compared - Experiments may include more than one experimental group (different levels) - There may be no control group (make direct comparison between two groups) - Two basic ways to design an Experiment: o The group is divided into two, and participants are either in the control group OR the experimental group (different participants for each condition)  Random assignment used (equal chance of being in each group) o Each group is exposed to each condition (participants are test twice)  Counterbalancing = order of conditions varied Experimental vs. Descriptive/Correlational Approaches: - Experimental manipulates one or more independent variables and measures the effect on the dependant variable, but in D/C all variables are measured - Experiments take place in labs, D/C research takes place in natural settings - D/C research cannot control outside factors, experiments can  D/C are not suited for cause/effect relations Threats to the Validity of Research: - Validity: how well an experimental procedure actually tests what it is designed to test - Internal Validity: the degree to which an experiment supports clear causal conclusions o Confounding Variables: two variables are intertwined in such a way that we cannot determine which one has influenced a dependant variable  Prevents one from drawing clear causal conclusions  Eliminated by: keeping constants throughout variables o Demand Characteristics: cues that participants pick up about the hypothesis of a study or about how they are supposed to behave  Participants may try to foil hypothesis, or act according to hypothesis  Researches try to anticipate and design studies to avoid o Placebo Effects: people receiving treatment show a change in behaviour because of their expectations  Design experiments to include placebo conditions, researchers can determine whether behaviour is truly caused by variables o Experimenter Expectancy Effect: the subtle unintentional ways a researcher influence participants to act in accordance with their hypothesis  Double blind procedure: simultaneously minimizing participant placebo effects and EEE. Both are kept blind to which experiment they are in - External Validity: the degree to which the results of a study can be generalized to other people, settings, and conditions. (Validity of the underlying principle of behaviour) o Replication= process of repeating a study to determine whether the original findings can be duplicated (more replications, the more confidence) Ethical Standards in Human Research: - University research is funded by three national government agencies: o Canadian Institutes of Human Research (CIHR) o Natural Sciences and Engineering (NSERC) o Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC)  Tri-Council policy universities must follow to receive funding - Universities must have their own ethics review board (ERB) o Involved in every research proposal - If a study is not considered ethical it must be changed or disregarded - Psychologist involved in research, direct service, teaching, admin, legal cases, etc. must: o Protect/promote welfare of participants, avoid doing harm to participants, probable benefit is greater than the risk, explain all aspects of the procedure, and ensure understanding, obtain consent, ensure privacy/confidentiality - Obtaining incomplete disclosure is very controversial: only obtained under limited circumstances when no other feasible alternative is available - Internet research is difficult to obtain proper consent (participants can drop out) Ethical Standards in Animal Research: - Researchers study non-human species for both theoretical and practical reasons - Animals should not be subjected to pain, stress, or privation unless there is no alternative procedure available and the goal is justified by prospective scientific merit Critical Thinking in Science and Everyday Life: - Informed consumers must be able to critically evaluate research and identify features that limit the validity of conclusions - Critical thinking skills can help people avoid being misled by claims made in everyday life Chapter Eleven- Development over the Life Span (6 Questions) Major Issues and Methods: - Developmental psychology examines changes in our biological, physical, psychological, and behavioural processes as we age. o Nature vs. Nurture: to what extent is our development the product or heredity (nature) or the product of environment (nurture)= interactions o Critical and Sensitive Periods:  Critical period= are range which certain experiences must occur  Sensitive period= optimal age range for certain experiences to occur o Continuity vs. Discontinuity: is development continuous or in distinct stages? o Stability vs. Change: Do characteristics remain constant as we age? - Developmental psychologists address these issues by describing developmental functions. Five developmental functions with different shapes: o No Change- ability is present at or before birth and remains constant o Continuous Change- ability develops gradually over months and years o Stages- ability progresses in stages, rapid shifts from low to high o Inverted U: emerges after birth, peaks, and declines o U-Shaped: present early in life, declines, re-emerges - Psychologist use special research designs to plot these age functions o Cross-Section Design: compare people of different ages at the same point in time  Test each person only once and compare the different age groups  Data is collected quickly and inexpensively  Cohorts grew up in different time periods which may alter results o Longitudinal Design: repeatedly tests the same cohort as they age  Everyone is exposed to the same historical timeframe  Design is time consuming, and sample may shrink (deaths, drop-outs) o Sequential Design: combines the cross-section and the longitudinal designs  Repeatedly tests several age cohorts, determines developmental patterns  Very expensive and time consuming Prenatal Development: consists of three steps of physical growth - Germinal Stage: from the time of conception through the first two weeks of development. The fertilized egg is called the zygote (mass of cells) - Embryonic Stage: second week through the eighth week after conception. The mass of cells is called the embryo. Two important structures: o Placenta: allows nutrients to pass from mother’s blood to umbilical cord o Umbilical Cord: contains blood vessels that carry nutrients in and wastes out - Fetal Stage: from the ninth week until birth. Embryo is now called the fetus. Genetics and Sex Determination: - The father’s chromosomes determine the sex of the baby rd o Women have a 23 chromosome of (XX) so they always donate an X o Men have a 23 chromosome of (XY) so they donate either X or Y - TDF (Testis determining factor) is present in males, but not females Environmental Factors: - Genetic blueprints set forth a path of prenatal development even before birth - Teratogens: environmental agents that cause abnormal prenatal development - Placenta protects from gerous substances but not all harmful chemicals: o Mercury, lead, radiation, environmental toxins, drugs cause birth defects o Cocaine and heroin cause the baby to be addicted and go through withdrawal o Alcohol causes FAS or FAE - In the third trimester the baby can hear and recognize sound Infancy and Childhood: - Sensory-perceptual processes that are exercised in the uterus, as well as vision operate at some level at birth, most improve rapidly - Some perceptual responses appear suddenly several months after birth - Some perceptual responses decline temporarily (motor skills) Physical, Motor, and Brain Development: - Maturation= genetically programmed biological process that governs our growth - Cephalocaudal Principle= tendency for development to occur in a head-to-toe direction - Proximodistal Principle = development begins from the inside out - Brain development is the quickest organ (occurs in an orderly fashion) - Motor Development: infants begin with reflexes (breathing) then motor skills are lost, and re-found at a later age Environmental and Cultural Influences: - Diet, physical touch, and environmental enrichment affect the development of a baby - Three points which lay across the realm of physical development: o Biology sets limits on environmental influences o Environmental influences can be powerful o Biological and environmental factors can interact Cognitive Development: - Piaget’s Stage Model of Development: key issue in understanding how children think o Relied on observational research (watching/listening to children) o Achieve understanding of brain building schemas (organized patterns of thought)  Cognitive development occurs as we acquire new schemas  Assimilation= new experiences are incorporated into existing schemas  Accommodation= new experiences cause existing schemas to change - Piaget’s four major stages of growth: o Sensorimotor: (birth -2) Infant understands world through sensory and motor experiences, they achieve object permanence (ability to understand that an object exists even when out of sight), emergence of symbolic thought o Preoperational: (2-7) Symbolic thinking, child uses words and images to represent objects and experiences (pretend play), thinking displays egocentrism irreversibility and centration o Concrete Operational: (7-12) child thinks logically about concrete events, grasps concepts about conservation and serial ordering o Formal Operational: (12+) think more logically, abstractly, and flexibly, can form hypotheses and test them systematically - Assessment of Piaget’s Theory: Stages, ages, and Culture o The general cognitive abilities associated with Piaget’s four stages appear to occur in the same order across cultures  However underdeveloped countries have an age-delay o Cognitive development within each stage seems to proceed inconsistently - Vygotsky: The Social Context of Cognitive Development o Emphasized that cognitive development occurs in a soci-cultural context  Daily interactions stimulate children’s cognitive growth o Proximal Development: the different between what a child can do independently and what a child can do with assistance from adults or more advanced peers  Recognize the functions that have not yet occurred  Emphasizes what children may soon be able to do - Information-Processing Approaches: o Cognitive development best examined within information processing framework  Information processing speed improves during childhood  Memory capabilities expand significantly during childhood  Metacognition refers to awareness of one’s own cognitive process - Cognitive development is a continuous, gradual process in which the same set of processing abilities becomes more efficient over time - Theory of Mind: Children’s Understanding of Metal States  Refers to a person’s belief about how the mind works  Children under six have limited Moral Development: - All societies have moral conduct, children recognize right/wrong, become moral adults - Freud: children develop moral conscious by identifying with their parents - Skinner: children learn which behaviours are good or bad through punishment/reward - Piaget: cognitive process pass from simple stage of morality to a complex one Kohlberg’s Stage Model: Concerned with reasoning rather than with answers - Three main levels of reasoning: o Level One: Preconventional moral reasoning (anticipated punishment/reward)  Stage 1: Punishment/obedience (obey rules, avoid punishment)  Stage 2: Instrumental/hedonistic (self-interest/reward gain) o Level Two: Conventional: conformity to social expectations, duties, laws  Stage 3: Good child orientation (approval/relationships with others)  Stage 4: Law and order (doing duties/respect for authority/social order) o Level Three: Postconventional Moral Reasoning (general moral principles)  Stage 5: Social Contract (community welfare/individual rights)  Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles (justice/equality/one’s conscious) Culture, Gender, and Moral Reasoning: - Moral reasoning changes from preconventional to conventional levels with age o Levels are not skipped, people move from one to the other in sequence - Kohlberg believed people from Westernized, formally educated, upper-class backgrounds are more moral than those in developing countries o Problems with this model:  Highest moral values do not fit into his model  Justice reflects a male perspective  Focuses on moral thinking, not moral action - Moral behaviour is both a cognitive and behavioural process Personality and Social Development: distinctive, constant pattern of thinking, feeling, behaving - Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory: eight major psychological stages involving crisis o Basic trust vs. Basic Mistrust: (1 year) depend completely on caretakers o Autonomy vs. Shame: (1-2) exercise individuality o Initiative vs. Guilt: (3-5) curiosity about the world o Industry vs. Inferiority: (6-12) life expands into school and peers - Attachment: strong emotional bond that develops between child and caregiver o Imprinting: ducklings following their mother (crucial periods) o Attachment has a sensitive period, but relationships can develop  Indiscriminate Attachment Behaviour: everyone evoked  Discriminate Attachment Behaviour: behaviours toward familiar  Specific Attachment Behaviour: first meaningful attachment o Stranger Anxiety: distress over contact with unfamiliar people o Separation Anxiety: distress over being separate from primary care givers - Strange Situation Test (SST): plays with toys in mother’s presence, stranger comes in, mother leaves, stranger leaves, mother returns o SSTs classify infants into three categories:  Securely Attached Infants  Anxious Avoidant Infants  Anxious Resistant Infants - Infancy is a sensitive time for attachment, but it came be obtained later in life (orphans) - Daycare has a been a controversial issue throughout the world: o Does not disrupt infant’s attachment to their parents o Other patient-child interactions: slightly less social towards mothers o Long term effects: better adjusted socially - After school care does not affect a child’s attachment - Styles of Parenting: two key dimensions in parenting styles o Warmth vs. Hostility: Warmth= care, Hostility= rejection o Restrictiveness versus Permissiveness: extent to which they enforce rules  Authoritative Parents: controlling but warm (best)  Authoritarian Parents: exert control, and little care  Indulgent Parents: warm, but no control  Neglectful Parents: Not warmth, no control (worst) - Parents play a role in gender identity (the idea of being male or female) o Gender Constancy: understanding being male or female permanently o Sex-Role Stereotypes: beliefs of the characteristics of each gender o Socialization: shaping gender identity and sex-role types o Sex-Typing: treating people differently because of their gender Adolescence: period between childhood and adulthood recognized internationally - Physical Development: puberty marks the beginning of adolescence o Person becomes capable of sexual reproduction (secretion of hormones/growth)  Girls = first menstrual cycle (age 12-13)  May have negative side-effects (eating disorders smoking)  Boys= first production of sperm and the first ejaculation (age 14)  May have positive side-effects (growth/muscle) - Cognitive Development: acquire new maturity, and reason abstractly/deeply o Adolescent Egocentrism: Highly self-focused  Personal Fable: over estimate the uniqueness of their situation  Imaginary audience: feel they are always on stage  More egocentric, the higher tendency for depression/risky behaviour - Social and Personal Development: o The Search for Identity: Identity vs. Role Confusion  Identity Diffusion: they have not yet gone through an identity crisis, and remain uncommitted to a coherent set of values or roles  Foreclosure: adopting an identity without first going through a crisis  Moratorium: currently experiencing a crisis, but have not resolved it  Identity Achievement: gone through a crisis, successfully resolved it, adopted a coherent set of values and are pursuing goals to which they are committed - Relationships with Parents: surprising teens report getting along with their parents - Peer and Friendship Relationships: become a priority during adolescence Adulthood: - Physical Development: o Young adults in their mid-twenties are at the peak of their functioning o Functioning declines in all aspects as a person ages - Cognitive Development: post-formal thought= reason logically about opposing ideas o Perpetual Speed, Memory, Spatial Memory, and recall and recognition decline with aging, but verbal memory declines at a slower rate o Fluid Intelligence: ability to perform mental operations o Crystallized Intelligence: accumulation of verbal skills and knowledge - Social and Personal Development Chapter Nine- Thought, Language, and Intelligence (2 Questions) Intelligence in Historical Perspective: Sir Frances Galton: purely scientific desire to extend Darwin’s theory of evolution to intelligence - First to do scientific studies of mental skills - Studied family trees = intelligence seemed to occur across generations within families - Biological Basis: socially/occupationally successful = perform better on lab tests o Reaction speed, hand strength, sensory abilities, skull size - Approach proved intelligence is unrelated to social relevance Alfred Binet: finding means to identify “mentally defective” children - More interested in solving a practical problem than specific knowledge - Determine which children would benefit from public school (and which require Sp. Ed.) - In developing his tests he made two assumptions about intelligence: o Mental abilities develop with age o Rate at which people gain mental competence is individual and constant - Created standard intelligence for age groups and tested children against standards o Development mental age: age of the child’s intelligence - William Stern developed Intelligence Quotient (IQ) = (Mental age/actual age) X 100 o A score of 100 means the child is exactly at his age level - These tests are considered inaccurate because: o Metal age dramatically slows down at age 16 (most skills learned by this age) o Some intellectual skills show a decline with aging (memory) - Solution = Deviation IQ – how much above or below a group’s IQ The Stanford-Binet and Wechsler Scales: - Lewis Terman revised Binet’s test = Stanford-Binet Test (produced a single IQ score) o Newer version measures more specific mental functions with 15 subtests o Measure four areas of intellectual functioning:  Verbal reasoning  Abstract/visual reasoning  Quantitative reasoning  Short term memory - David Wechsler believed intelligence should be measure as a group of distinct but related verbal and non-verbal abilities (Wechsler Scale) o Series of subtests in two categories: verbal and performance o Tests an individual’s patterns of intellectual strengths and weaknesses o Tests yield three different scores:  Verbal IQ: based on verbal subscales  Performance IQ: based on performance subscales  Full-Scale IQ: based on both scales Group Tests of Aptitude and Achievement: - Intelligence test must be administered to an individual by a trained tester o Can take up to two hours, impractical for large-scale purposes - Group tests obtain IQ scores from groups of people at the same time o Written tests are given rather than verbal tests o Examples: Otis-Lennon School Ability Test, SATs, GREs, LSATs, MCATs - Should we a person’s aptitude for learning or what they already know? o Achievement Test: designed to find out how much someone knows  Advantage: good predictor of future performance  Disadvantage: assumes everyone has had the same opportunity to learn o Aptitude Test: measure applicants potential for learning  Advantage: Fairer because they depend less on prior knowledge  Disadvantage: difficult to construct test independent of prior knowledge o THEREFORE: intelligence tests test a combination of aptitude and achievement Scientific Standards for Psychological Tests: - Psychological Test: method used measure differences in a psychological concept based on a sample of relevant behaviour in a scientifically designed and controlled question o When designing a psychological test one must:  Decide specific behaviours to serve as indicators of intellectual abilities  Provide evidence that the sample actually measures what we’re assessing  Collect a sample of relevant behaviour under standard conditions to control for other factors that could influence responses - Reliability: consistency of measurement that can take different forms o Test-retest: stable traits produce stable scores that are consistent over time  Assessed by administering the measure to the same group of participants on two separate occasions and correlating the two sets of scores o Internal Consistency: consistency of measurement within the test itself  All of the items within the test are measuring the same thing o Interjudge Reliability: consistency of measurement when two different people score the same test (scoring instructions must be explicate) - Validity: how well a test measures what it is designed to measure (several types) o Construct Validity: is the test measuring what it is supposed to be?  Perfect construct Validity: test measures its purpose, nothing else o Content Validity: whether items on the test measure ALL of the knowledge or skills that are assumed to comprise the construct of interest  Valid tests should allow us to predict other behaviours that are assumed to be influenced by intelligence. Outcomes are called criterion measures o Predictive Validity: how highly test scores correlate/predict criterion measures  People who score well on IQ tests tend to do well academically  IQ tests are valid enough to justify using them for screening purposes but low enough to suggest the use of other predictors  Intelligence tests predict academic success better than job success - Standardization and Norms: o Standardization= creating a controlled, standardized environment for administering the I.Ts so uncontrolled factors won’t influence scores o Norms= test results from a large sample that represent particular age segments of the population (basis for interpreting a given individuals score)  Normal Distribution Curve: bell-shaped curve with most scores clustering around the centre of the curve with few scores far left or far right The Nature of Intelligence: Psychometric Approach and the Cognitive Processes Approach - The Psychometric Approach: The Structure of Intellect o Psychometrics: Statistical study of psychological tests (standardization, reliability, validity). Produces a measurement-based map of the mind.  Factor Analysis: analysis of correlations between tests scores and discovery of causes for high correlations  Two Views of the nature of intelligence:  Intelligence is a single global mental capability  Set if specific abilities to do different types of thinking o The g Factor: Intelligence as a General Mental Capacity  Charles Spearman: intellectual performance is partially determined by general intelligence (g factor) and by special abilities o Intelligence as Specific Mental Abilities: challenged the g factor  L.L Thurstone: human mental performance depends on seven distinct abilities = primary mental abilities o Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence: intermediate between two previous concepts  Developed by Raymond Cattell, extend by John Horne  Crystallized Intelligence: ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problem  Fluid Intelligence: ability to deal with problem solving o Multiple Intelligences: Beyond Mental Capacities  Howard Gardner: independent intelligences that relate to different adaptive demands: linguistic, mathematical, visual-spatial, musical, body- kinaesthetic, personal (functioning of separate but interacting modules) o Emotional Intelligence: ability to read others’ emotions accurately, respond to them appropriately, to motivate oneself, be aware of one’s own emotions, and to regulate and control one’s own emotional responses - Cognitive Process Approaches: Processes Underlying Intelligent Thinking o Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory: both the psychological processes involved in intelligent behaviour and the diverse forms that intelligence can take  Metacomponents: process used to plan and regulate task performance  Performance Components: mental processes used to perform the task  Knowledge-Acquisition Components: o Addresses intelligent behaviour as it relates to environment and culture:  Analytical Intelligence: academically oriented problem solving skills  Practical Intelligence: skills needed to cope with everyday demands  Creative Intelligence: skills needed to deal with novel problems o Galton Resurrected: Intelligence and Neural Efficiency Evidence  Relations have been shown between IQ and speed of the brain’s electrical response to stimuli  Lower levels of glucose consumption in the brain of people with high intelligence, suggest brains work more efficiently Influences on Intelligence: - Ethnic Group Differences: o East Asians score the highest on IQ scales, than Caucasian, than Blacks o Tests may underestimate minority groups because they’re culturally based o Tests measure relevant mental skills equally for all cultural groups o Factors affecting the differences among cultural groups:  Nature vs. Nurture (environments they have been raised in)  Genetic Differences: similar genes in race groups - Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities: o Men are stronger at spatial tasks, target-directed tasks, mathematical reasoning o Women are stronger at perpetual speed, verbal fluency, mathematical calculation, and precise manual tasks requiring fine motor coordination o Both biological and environmental factors explain the difference:  Biological: different hormones in the brain  Environmental: different social experiences Extremes of Intelligence: individuals at both ends of the intelligence distribution - The Cognitively Disabled (Mentally Retarded): 3-5% of the North American Population o Four Classifications: mild, moderate, severe, profound  Mild: (IQ= 50-70) capable of living in society with appropriate support  Profound: (IQ= 20) institutional care required o Causes include biological, environmental, and genetic causes:  Biological: (25%) genetic diseases = down syndrome, PKU  Environmental: accidents at birth, deprivation of oxygen, diseases contracted from mothers during pregnancy  Other causes: undetected brain damage, environment deprivation - The Intellectually Gifted: have an IQ of over 120 and show superior abilities o Gifted children are alert, curious, persistent, full of energy, begin walking and talking earlier, read obsessively, demonstrate superior memory, good abstract reasoning, good sense of humour, befriends older children  Require special education to avoid become bored o Gifted Adults have successful marriages, and are well adjusted psychologically Chapter Twelve: Personality (5 Questions) What is Personality? - Personality: Distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that characterize a person`s responses to life situations o People seem to behave consistently over time, in different situations o Personality Traits = characterized customary ways of responding to the world - There are three characteristics of personality: o Components of Identity: distinguish that person from another o Perceived Internal Cause: caused internally rather than environmentally o Perceived Internal Organization: behaviours seem to ``fit-together`` The Psychodynamic Perspective: the dynamic interplay of inner forces (Freud) - Freud and Jean Charcot treated patients with conversion hysteria through hypnosis, free association, and dream analysis (Freud even did a self-analysis) o Theory of Personality: study of the mind, treatment of psychological disorders - Psychic Energy and Mental Events: exchanges and releases of physical energy o Psychic Energy: powers the mind pressing direct or indirect releases o Mental events may be:  Conscious: events we are currently aware up  Preconscious: unaware of at the moment, but can be called into consciousness (example: memories)  Unconscious: dynamic realm that lies beyond our awareness - The Structure of Personality: three separate interacting structures: id, ego, superego o Id: PLEASURE PRINCIPLE, exists totally within the unconscious mind, innermost core of personality, only structure present at birth, source of psychic energy, no contact with reality or the outside environment, relies on ego for satisfaction o Ego: REALITY PRINCIPLE, eye of the psychiatric storm, achieves a compromise between the id and the superego, EXECUTIVE OF PERSONALITY o Superego: MORALITY PRINCIPLE, how a person SHOULD act, strives to control the impulses of the id, delays gratification until conditions are safe/appropriate - Conflict, Anxiety, Defence: o Anxiety = danger signal that motivates the ego to deal with the problem at hand o Defence Mechanism= denial or distortion of reality (operate unconsciously)  Occur when realistic strategies are ineffective  Repression: ego uses energy to prevent anxiety-arousing memories, feelings, impulses from entering consciousness  Remain unconscious enter reality in slips of the tongue/dreams  Sublimation: channelling repression into socially acceptable behaviour - Psychosexual Development: personality is powerfully moulded by experience in the first years of life. Children pass through a series of psychosexual stages (erogenous zones) o Oral (mouth), Anal (anus), Phallic (genitals), Latency (none), Genital (genitals) o Deprivations and overindulgences arising during these stages result in fixation - Research on Psychoanalytic Theory: Freud tested ideas through case studies and clinical observation, and he opposed experimental research o Concepts are difficult to understand so little current research done to assess - Evaluating Psychoanalysis Theory: criticized on scientific grounds because it is difficult to test, however unconscious mental phenomena have been proven scientifically - Freud’s Legacy: Neoanalytic and Objective Relations Approach o Neoanalysts: (Jung, Erickson) believe social and cultural factors play a sufficiently important role in development and dynamic personality, personality development continues throughout the life span o Alfred Adler: humans are inherently social beings motivated by social interest and have a general motive of striving for superiority o Analytic Psychology: (Jung) personal unconscious and a collective unconscious represented by archetypes (tendencies to inherit experience in certain ways) o Objective Relations: focus on the images or mental representations that people form of themselves and other people as a result of experience with care-givers o Attachment Theory: (John Bowlby) outgrowth of the object relations approach Humanistic Perspective: embrace a positive view affirms dignity and goodness (ROGERS) - Carl Roger’s Self Theory: behaviour is a response to immediate conscious experience of self and environment, forces within direct us towards self-actualization o The Self: organized, consistent set of perceptions and beliefs about oneself  Guides our perceptions and directs our behaviours  Self-Consistency: absence of conflict among self-perceptions  Congruence: consistency between self-perceptions and experience  Experiences inconsistent with self-concept cause threat and anxiety  Preserve self image by interpreting situations in self-congruence ways - The Need for Positive Regard: acceptance, sympathy, and love from others o Unconditional Positive Regard: love from parents independent of behaviour o Conditional Positive Regard: acceptance depending on behaviour - Fully Functioning Persons: people who have achieved self-actualization giving them a sense of inner freedom, self-determination, and choice. No fear of spontaneity. - Research on the Self: development of self-esteem, self-enhancement, self-consistency o Self-Esteem: how positively or negatively we feel about ourselves  High Self-Esteem: less susceptible to social pressure, fewer interpersonal problems, happier with their lives, establish meaningful relationships  Poor Self Image: prone to psychological problems, physical illness, poor social relationships, and underachievement  Men and women do not differ in overall level of self-esteem o Self Verification and Self-Enhancement Motives:  Self Verification: motives to preserve self-concept by maintaining self- consistency and congruence  Self-Enhancement: people tend to regard themselves positively  Attribute success to their own abilities and failure to environment o Culture, Gender, and the Self:  Culture: individualistic cultures emphasis on independence and personal attainment, collective cultures emphasis group goals and success  Gender: men = achievement, emotional strength, athleticism, self- sufficiency, women = interpersonal competencies, kindness, helpfulness  Gender Schemas: mental structures contain our understanding of the attributes and behaviours that are expected of males/females o Evaluating Humanistic Theories: focus on individual`s experiences and how people view themselves and the world (individual reports on themselves)  The ideal self (how people would like to be) and the perceived self (their perceptions on how they actually are) Trait and Biological Perspectives: classes of behaviour to measure personality traits, and measure individual differences in personality traits, understand and predict behaviour - Building Block of Personality: o Propose Traits : on the basis of intuition or a theory of personality o Factor Analysis: identify clusters of specific behaviours that are correlated with one another, reflecting on a basic dimension or trait on which people vary  Introversion-Extraversion: major dimension of personality o Cattell`s Sixteen Personality Factors: factor analysis used to interpret different personality traits, Cattell identified 16 basic behaviour clusters and factors  Widely used personality test: 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) used to measure individual differences and provide a personality description. This develops personality profiles for individuals and groups. o Eysenck`s Extraversion-Stability Model: two basic dimensions of personality Introversion-Extroversion, and Stability-Instability (normal personality)  Two dimensions are independent and uncorrelationed  Added a third dimension of Psychoticism-Self Control o Five Factor Model: Five high-order factors that are basic structure of personality  OCEAN: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism = many variations make up individuality o Traits and Behaviour Prediction: Mershon and Gorsuch found that Cattell`s 16 factors are best for predicting behaviour on occupation, job performance and promotions, marijuana smoking, and development of psychological disorders o Biological Foundations of Personality Traits: differences in nervous systems evolutionary principles, and the role of behaviour genetics affect personality  Eysenck: Introversion is caused by an overaroused brain, extroversion is caused by an underaroused brain, stability is caused by small gradual shifts in arousal, and instability is caused by drastic shifts.  Cloninger: differences in personality are caused by differences in the functioning of specific neurotransmitter systems o The Stability of Personality Traits: certain traits are more stable than others  Pessimism and Optimism tend to be constant through the lifespan  The Stability of Behaviours depend on:  How personality traits interact with the situation characteristics  How important a trait is to the person  Ability to tailor behaviour: self-monitoring o High Self-Monitoring: adapt their behaviour to situation o Low Self-Monitoring: act according to internal beliefs o Evaluating the Trait Approach: Trait theorist focus their attention on identifying, classifying, and measuring stable, enduring, personality dispositions  Must Improve/ further investigate the following issues:  How traits interact with each other  Distinction between description and explanation  Predicting with understanding of psychological processes Social Cognitive Theories: the human is a perceiver, a thinker, and a planner who mentally interprets events and thinks about the past, anticipates the future, and decides how to behave - Rotter and Mischel combined the behavioural/cognitive perspectives to the interaction of a thinking human with a social environment that provides learning experiences o Reciprocal Determinism: the person, the person’s behaviour, and the environment all influence one another in a pattern of two-way casual links - Julian Rotter: Expectancy, Reinforcement Value and Locus of Control o The likelihood we will engage in an activity is based on:  Expectancy: perception of the consequences of our actions  Reinforcement Value: how much we desire or dread the outcome o Locus of Control: degree of personal control (generalized expectancy)  Internal Locus of Control: life outcomes are largely under personal control and depend on their own behaviour  External Locus of Control: fate has less to do with their personal control and depend on external factors (luck, chance, others) o Albert Bandura: self-efficacy = beliefs concerning abilities to perform behaviours  Factors affecting Self-Efficacy:  Performance in similar situations  Observational learning: watching others and their outcomes  Verbal Persuasion: other people who affirm our abilities  Emotional Arousal: ability to control negative arousal o Evaluating Social Cognitive Theories: strong theory because it has a strong scientific background and combines two researched concept Personality Assessment: must be reliable and valid - Interviews: making judgements about others by observing them and talking with them o Structured Interview: collect data by asking participant specific questions o Limitations: characteristics of the interviewer may affect how the person responds in ways that affect the validity of the information, and depends on the interviewee’s cooperation, honestly and accuracy - Behavioural Assessment: observe behaviours rather than asking about them o Psychologists devise a coding scheme which contains behavioural categories of interest, train observers, and find valuable info. on frequency and under what conditions behaviours occur (requires precision in defining behaviours) - Remote Behaviour Sampling: researches/clinicians collect samples of behaviour from responders as they live their daily lives through a computerized device o When the beeper sound they answer a set of questions applying to their current situation which is then stored or transmitted to researchers o Enables researchers to detect patterns of personal functioning - Personality Scales: objective test which measures participants using a set of questions o Advantages: collect data from a large group of people at one time, people respond to the same set of questions, and it is easy to score o Disadvantages: some people will choose not to answer honestly  Validity Scales: detect tendencies to respond in socially desirable ways o Questions are developed using two major processes:  Rational Approach: theorist conception of the personality trait (example: an introvert would most likely answer true to this specific question)  Empirical Approach: previous tests have proven different groups of people will answer differently o Multiphasic Personality Inventory: MMPI provides an objective basis for psychiatric diagnosis (to detect specific psychiatric disorders)  Validity Scales are used to detect tendencies to present either an overly positive or negative result (detection of a psychiatric disorder)  Extraordinarily high scores= extreme anti-social impulsiveness - Projective Tests: measures unconscious dynamics that cannot be reported by the self o Rorshach Inkblots: 10 inkblots are shown to the subject and they are asked what they see, and which feature stand out significantly to them. Responses are categorized and scored depending on objects seen , and their emotional tone o Thematic Apperception Test: series of pictures derived from paintings, drawings and magazines are shown to a subject who is asked to describe what is happening in each scene. The stories are analyzed for reoccurring themes  Disadvantage: the same stories can be interpreted different o Personality Theory and Personality Assessment: intimately related to theory  Psychodynamic Theorists = projective tests  Humanistic Theorists = self-report measures  Social Cognitive = behavioural assessments  Trait Theorists = Multiphasic personality inventory  Biological Theorists = personal functioning Chapter Thirteen: Psychological Disorders (7 Questions) Historical Perspective s on Psychological Disorders: - Demonological View: abnormal behaviour was caused by supernatural forces and attributed to the work of the devil. Treatment = trephination (cutting a hole in the skill) o In the Medieval times people believe that some individuals voluntarily worked for the devil and they were referred to as witches. Treatment = death. - Biological Views: (Hippocrates) mental illnesses are physical disorders viewed as an illness of the brain. General Paresis = massive brain deterioration cause by syphilis - Psychological Views: (Freud) disorders are caused by unresolved conflicts from childhood that make a person vulnerable to certain kinds of life events o Situations cause anxiety which invokes defence mechanisms  Neuroses: disorders which do not involve a loss of reality (obsession)  Psychoses: conflicts become great and the person withdraws from reality o Behavioural Perspective: disorders are learned responses o Cognitive Perspective: disorders are caused from people’s thoughts/perceptions about themselves and their environment o Humanistic Perspective: disorders are the result of environmental forces that frustrate or prevent people’s inherent self-actualization tendencies and search for the meaning of life o Socio-Cultural Perspective: disorders are in part caused by the cultural context in which they occur and the cultural factors that influence forms they take o Today’s Vulnerability-Stress Model: relation between vulnerability and stress  Each person has some degree of vulnerability ranging from high to low Defining and Classifying Psychological Disorders: What is Abnormal: behaviour that is personally distressful, personally dysfunctional, and/or so culturally deviant that other people judge it to be inappropriate or maladaptive - The three D’s govern decisions about abnormality o Distressing: to the individual
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