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Lectures Notes for Second Midterm.docx

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PSYC 2310
Saba Safdar

Chapter 7: Persuasion Principles of Social Influence 03/10/2013 1:37:00 PM Conformity  when people are free to do as they please, they usually imitate each other  social psychologists o see why people conform Definitions  conformity is a change in behaviour or belief as a result of real or imagined pressure from others o Kiesler and Kiesler, 1969 Why Conform?  1. the need to know! o informational social influence  other people serve information to us  accepting others’ interpretation of an ambiguous reality in order to obtain accurate information  Muzafer Sherif’s studies  autokinetic effect  in a dark room, light seems to be coming and going  asked to say how much the light is shifting  reality, the light is not moving, this is an illusion, happens when you are in a dark environment, don’t have the ability to anchor the light relative to things in the room  with other people and taking turns saying how much they think that the light is moving, must say it one after each other o averages will shift, they don’t trust what they see but what other’s see  asked people to come back a week later, they used the groups average because they have accepted it Multigenerational Norms  study of transition of norms from generation to generation by MacNeil and Sherif (1976) o 4 person group in the laboratory o 3 members were confederates o establishing an arbitrary group norm of 12 inches o completing 20 judgments trials o replacing one of the confederates with a new naïve number after each 30 judgments trials o continuing the study for 11 generations, each one involving the replacement of the oldest group member with a new member Why Do We Conform?  2. the need to be accepted? o normative social influence  conforming to other people in order to be liked and accepted by them  Asch (1950)  show that when the answer is clear, people will still conform Solomon Asch’s studies  results o condition – unambiguous stimuli o participants alone: <1% gave wrong answers o participants in groups: 23% always gave the correct answers; 77% at least gave one wrong answer (32% gave 7 or more wrong answers) Factors related to conformity  nature of the task o ambiguity  more ambiguous, more likely you are to conform o difficulty  more difficult, more likely you will conform o informational and normative information  individual differences o conformity varies in different stages of like span: childhood, adolescence, and old age  group size o bigger the group, more conformity  until a certain point o group 5  more conformity than a group of 3 Resisting Conformity  best way to prevent ourselves from following the wrong social norm o becoming aware of normative influence o taking action (scepticism toward groups, even our own)  idiosyncrasy credits o refers to the fact that when you belong to a group and you conform to them, they will allow you to break the conformity once in a while if you have acted with the norms long enough The Positive Aspects of Conformity  conforming to basic social norms is required if we want to live in an orderly society o citizens are expected a certain level of conformity Why the Majority Doesn’t Always Rule?  minority influence o Serge Moscovici (1985, 1994) argues that minority can influence the behaviour or beliefs of the majority o the key is consistency  dissenters are more effect if they are o independent thinkers o persistent o have authority FiX lecture 9 Obedience/ Conformity Across Culture Conformity Studies - slides have info  conformity is higher in collectivistic societies  conformity is lower amongst students  conformity is higher when interdependent relationships between groups Conformity Across Cultures  hunting and gathering societies and upper social segments of industrial societies, are low in conformity o Triandis, 1994 o individual characteristics to be independent and self-reliant  agricultural societies and lower social segments of industrial societies are high in conformity o Triandis, 1994 Berry’s study  Berry (1979) correlated the degree of independence with the sample’s position on an ecocultural dimension  he found a correlation of .70 between ecocultural dimension of self- reliance and independence or nonconformity o Berry, 1979  lower level of conformity Definition of Obedience  obedience is conformity in response to the command of an authority figure Obedience to the Authority  Milgram’s experiments (1965; 1974) o original experiment video: HM 1251 022 2013-10-08  Milgram’s basic findings o learner pounded on the wall in protest o learner pounded the wall in protest and after this gave no answers o almost 100% obedience  conclusions o proximity to victim matters  cant see the victim  obedience much higher  credibility of study  feelings of responsibility o proximity of authority matters  fear of authority  legitimacy of the authority  Milgram’s experiments re-visited (2007) o unethical  people were hurt and put under high stress o revisited  people didn’t change between now and then Intense Indoctrination  how do cult groups manage to exert such total control over the lives of their members?  Baron (2000) suggests that such indoctrination involves 4 distinct stages o was put in camps at a young age that involved intense labour o 1. softening-up stage  approach people who are isolated or make them isolated from people they know o 2. compliance stage  man or woman approaches a man or a women  given a pamphlet or info about the organization  new members are told to come and attend some of our meetings, said they don’t need to believe in their beliefs  taken to the meeting, kept there and kept aroused  more likely to agree to the beliefs o 3. internalization stage  must do something for them  internalize these ideas  donate money  help expand their organization o 4. consolidation stage  burn the bridges that led you there  you are a member now  all of this happens under o reduce attentional capacity  don’t have time to consider other ideas  surrounded by other people who are going through this process Obedience and Individual Difference  personal characteristics related to obedience o authoritarian submission  Elms, 1972  people who go through domestic abuse, they accept submission and the authority o internal-external locus of control dimension  Miller, 1975  influence of individual differences on obedience is relatively small compared to the impact of situational factors o nearly everyone will obey under some circumstance (recall dispositional error/fundamental attribution error that over emphasizes individual characteristics) Method of Investigation  controlled experiment o advantage  provides context for addressing whether or not an effect is real and which theoretical account explains it o disadvantage  eliminate other sources of influence  participant observation o researcher becomes an observer and participant of the situation and learn the dynamic of the setting Six Principles of Social Influence  Robert Cialdini (1995) found that the key to successful influence is what we do before attempting to influence o became a salesman for a while to be an observer o took breathing lessons  don’t allow people to have a chance to interrupt you First Principle  1. reciprocation o complying with a request of someone who has previously provided a favour o Study by Berry and Kanouse (1987)  send surveys out  half had one with a cheque but was to return the questionnaire  half had one with no cheque but with the promise with getting money after they return the questionnaire  people who received the money completed the survey than the others o door-in-the-face technique (or reciprocal concessions procedure) o living by the rule of reciprocity  Cialdini and et al. 1975  2. Social validation o complying with a request if it is consistent with what similar others are thinking or doing  Cialdini, 1995 o based on Social Comparison Theory  Festinger, 1954 o we follow the lead of many others and similar others o Milgram, Bickman, and Berkowitz (1969) Third Principle  3. consistency o after committing to a position, one is more likely to complying with requires that are consistent with that position  Cialdini, 1995 o foot-in-the-door technique o Pliner, Hart, Kohl and Sam’s study on charity donation (1974)  Heart and Stroke  wore the pin, 30% more likely to donate after a week  didn’t wear a pin, it was 50/50 if they donated o legitimization-of-paltry-favours (or even a penny would help) technique o “how are you feeling?” technique Fourth Principle  4. Friendship/Liking o one is more likely to comply with the request of friends or other liked individuals  (Cialdini, 1995) o Tupperware Corporation o Sella and Dot Products o increasing friendship/liking  similarity  compliment  cooperation  physical attractiveness  think they are more generous, smarter, trustworthy Fifth Principle  5. Scarcity o one tries to secure opportunities that are scarce  Cialdini, 1995) o sources of power of scarcity  scarcity means better quality  scarcity interferes with personal freedom and people react against the interference by wanting to posses the item more Advertising for Future Products  scarcity of future products o limited availability of a product enhances value perceptions and purchase intentions  (Eisend, 2008)  scarcity apply o if has been found that consumers may react to the unavailability of a product by inflating their preference for it  (Fitsimons, 2000) Sixth Principle  6. authority o one complies to the request of someone who is a legitimate authority Cultural Context of Persuasion: Communication and Commercialism Stages of Competence  effective communication o isomorphic attribution  Triandis, 1997  4 stages of competence o Howell, 1982 o unconscious incompetence o conscious incompetence o conscious competence o unconscious competence Bullfighting Anti-Bullfighitng in Spain  protesting against Source and Structure of Message  best sources of message o individualistic  credible, expert, winner o collectivist  older males and famous families  structure of message o individualist  linear, conclusion is supported through inductive and deductive reasoning o collectivist  “beating around the bush” Paralinguistic Communication  eye contact o Watson’s (1970) study  brought students to lab and asked them to engage in their native language  high level of eye contact: Arabs, Latin American, and Southern Europeans  low level of eye contact: Asians, Indians, and Northern Europe  touching o parts of body being touched is culturally determined  comparison of American and Japanese  Barniund, 1975  Americans are much touchier than Japanese  physical distance o Sussman and Rosenfeld (1982) study of use of physical distance among Japanese, Venezualan, and Americans o Latinos  stand closest to each other when speaking Spanish o Americans  in between o women in most cultures stand closer together Six Factors of Influence  examination of social influence factors in 4 societies o Morris, Podolny, Ariel, 2001 o US, China, Spain, and Germany  work in the same bank organization o colleague asks another for help, want to know what factors the other one considered o Germany  rules o Spain  friendship o US o China Culture Differences in Touching  comparison of touching behaviour among American, Italian, and Czech o Dibiase, Gunnoe, 2004  hand touch and non-hand touch were observed among 120 participants Results for Hand Touch  Czechs men engaged in more hand touching than other men  hand touching is associated with power and societies where gender roles are more traditional, there is more asymmetry in this behaviour Results for Non Hand Touch  Italian women engaged in more non-hand touching than other women  women engaged in more non-hand touching in traditional societies P
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