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PSYC 2310 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Neuropsychology, Brainstem, Sampling Bias

Course Code
PSYC 2310
Betty Onyura
Study Guide

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[PSYCH *1200] Midterm #1- Review
7 Major Perspectives on Behaviour:
1) Biological Perspective:
To be psychological something must first be physiological. Very logical and very
Lags behind other perspectives in psych because technology had to catch up
Influenced by:
oDiscoveries of brain-behaviour relations: Lashley (1950’s), Penfield (1970’s)
Lashley : trained rats on a complex maze. Once they finished the maze he removed
part of their brain to see if they could still complete it. Removing their hypo cantus
prevented them completing the maze. He was able to map different brain areas to
different behaviours
Penfield : He did brain surgery on patients with epilepsy, kept them awake awake
and stimulated different parts of the cerebral cortex to see what happened and
which parts of the brain could be removed. He saw consistency among different
groups of people
oDarwin’s evolutionary theory: Natural Selection
Darwin: 2 main traits that help reproductive success; A trait can make someone
more desirable or could cause males to battle other males for females.
oBehaviour genetics: Selective Breeding & Twin Studies
Done with animals, specifically group of rats. Put them on a maze,
some rats did really well (maze bright rats), Some didn’t do well (maze
dull rats.) Let the maze brights breed with each other over generations
& let maze dulls breed with each other over generations. The gap
between them increased.
Can also look at identical twins. Any differences are a part of their
environment.. If they have the same intelligence, and they did not
grow up together, can be linked to genetics instead of environment.
2) Cognitive Perspective:
Focuses on how mental processes influence motives, emotions, & behaviours
Cognitive: mental processes. Anything going on with thoughts in your mind.
oStructuralism : understand the mind by breaking it down in its individual

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[PSYCH *1200] Midterm #1- Review
elements. Used introspection – your trained how to look inside of yourself
and report exactly how you are feeling. Further understand the structure
of the mind – failed because it is very subjective to the patient.
oFunctionalism: Studies the function of the mind what does each part
do. Still see elements of it in modern psychology. Not a formal school of
thought anymore.
oGestalt psychology: Group of psychologists in Germany. Looked at the
mind not as its individual parts, but as a whole unit. Opposite of
structuralists. “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts”
Jean Piaget: Studied cognitive development in children, Identified stages of
cognitive development that unfold as children mature. Interested in what kids got
wrong. Looked at their mistakes and developed stages of cognitive development.
Modern cognitive science:
oArtificial Intelligence (Computer models & “expert” systems)
oCognitive neuroscience (Electrical recording & brain imaging)
3) Psychodynamic Perspective:
Sigmund Freud : Psychological problems are the result of unconscious motives &
unresolved past conflicts. Early 1900s, he was very influential and Stirred up a lot
of attention. No matter what you find, he has the answer. Yet his Theory was un-
Current influence of Freud:
oBiological (brain mechanisms which produce emotional reactions which we
are unaware of.)
oCognitive (aspects of information processing outside awareness).
Priming: When you are asked to make a decision, 13 seconds
before you say your answer, your brain knows what you’re going to
4) Behaviourism:
Emphasized environmental control of behaviour through learning.
Watson: Founder of behaviourism. Believed you can’t measure what is happening in
someone else's head, therefore we should just study behaviour because we can
monitor that.
Skinner : Studied consequences of behaviour – Behaviour modification.

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[PSYCH *1200] Midterm #1- Review
5) Cognitive Behaviourism
Bandura: (1960s) we can learn new behaviours by observing actions of others.
oBidirectional relation between person and environment
oBehaviourists say there is no such thing as free will. Bandura says we have
the power to control our environment also.
6) Humanistic Perspective:
Emphasizes conscious motives, freedom, choice, Self-actualization, and reaching
one’s full potential.
Consious motives : we are aware of what our motives are.
Self-actualization : must do something to feel like they belong here.
Sociocultural Perspective:
Focuses on the role of culture in behaviour, the way culture is transmitted across
generations, and the contrasts between different cultures.
Psychologists need to take in someones culture to full understand where they are
coming from.
Branches in Psych:
Experimental psychology:
oPhysiological psychology, Comparative psychology (evolution), Developmental
psychology, Social psychology (how others influence individuals), Sensation
and perception (5 senses), Learning, Neuropsychologist (brain), Cognitive
psychologist (memory, language, problem solving), Personality, Psychometrics
(design tests.)
Applied Psychology:
oClinical psychology (diagnose), Clinical neuropsychologist (brain), Counseling
(marriage/school), Health, Educational, Community, Consumer (marketing
products), Engineering (ergnomics), Industrial & organizational (workplace)
CHAPTER TWO- Experiments
The Scientific Method: A seven-step system that guides how scientists should collect and
analyze data, designed to help the scientific process remain as accurate and precise as
1) Review existing theories: Become familiar with any facts/ ideas that are already
out there
2) Formulate a hypothesis
oOperational definitions: Very specific explanations of a behaviour or variable
(Ex. 3 years of musical training on a violin between the ages of 5 and 8 years
will result in higher math grades in 3rd grade than no musical training between
5 and 8 years of age.)
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