[PSYCH *1200] Midterm #1- Review
7 Major Perspectives on Behaviour:
1) Biological Perspective:
To be psychological something must first be physiological. Very logical and very
Lags behind other perspectives in psych because technology had to catch up
o Discoveries of brain-behaviour relations: Lashley (1950s), Penfield (1970s)
Lashley: trained rats on a complex maze. Once they finished the maze he removed
part of their brain to see if they could still complete it. Removing their hypo cantus
prevented them completing the maze. He was able to map different brain areas to
Penfield: He did brain surgery on patients with epilepsy, kept them awake awake
and stimulated different parts of the cerebral cortex to see what happened and
which parts of the brain could be removed. He saw consistency among different
groups of people
o Darwins evolutionary theory: Natural Selection
Darwin: 2 main traits that help reproductive success; A trait can make someone
more desirable or could cause males to battle other males for females.
o Behaviour genetics: Selective Breeding & Twin Studies
Done with animals, specifically group of rats. Put them on a maze,
some rats did really well (maze bright rats), Some didnt do well (maze
dull rats.) Let the maze brights breed with each other over generations
& let maze dulls breed with each other over generations. The gap
between them increased.
Can also look at identical twins. Any differences are a part of their
environment.. If they have the same intelligence, and they did not
grow up together, can be linked to genetics instead of environment.
2) Cognitive Perspective:
Focuses on how mental processes influence motives, emotions, & behaviours
Cognitive: mental processes. Anything going on with thoughts in your mind.
o Structuralism: understand the mind by breaking it down in its individual [PSYCH *1200] Midterm #1- Review
elements. Used introspection your trained how to look inside of yourself
and report exactly how you are feeling. Further understand the structure
of the mind failed because it is very subjective to the patient.
o Functionalism: Studies the function of the mind what does each part
do. Still see elements of it in modern psychology. Not a formal school of
o Gestalt psychology: Group of psychologists in Germany. Looked at the
mind not as its individual parts, but as a whole unit. Opposite of
structuralists. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
Jean Piaget: Studied cognitive development in children, Identified stages of
cognitive development that unfold as children mature. Interested in what kids got
wrong. Looked at their mistakes and developed stages of cognitive development.
Modern cognitive science:
o Artificial Intelligence (Computer models & expert systems)
o Cognitive neuroscience (Electrical recording & brain imaging)
3) Psychodynamic Perspective:
Sigmund Freud: Psychological problems are the result of unconscious motives &
unresolved past conflicts. Early 1900s, he was very influential and Stirred up a lot
of attention. No matter what you find, he has the answer. Yet his Theory was un-
Current influence of Freud:
o Biological (brain mechanisms which produce emotional reactions which we
are unaware of.)
o Cognitive (aspects of information processing outside awareness).
Priming: When you are asked to make a decision, 13 seconds
before you say your answer, your brain knows what youre going to
Emphasized environmental control of behaviour through learning.
Watson: Founder of behaviourism. Believed you cant measure what is happening in
someone else's head, therefore we should just study behaviour because we can
Skinner: Studied consequences of behaviour Behaviour modification. [PSYCH *1200] Midterm #1- Review
5) Cognitive Behaviourism
Bandura: (1960s) we can learn new behaviours by observing actions of others.
o Bidirectional relation between person and environment
o Behaviourists say there is no such thing as free will. Bandura says we have
the power to control our environment also.
6) Humanistic Perspective:
Emphasizes conscious motives, freedom, choice, Self-actualization, and reaching
ones full potential.
Consious motives : we are aware of what our motives are.
Self-actualization : must do something to feel like they belong here.
Focuses on the role of culture in behaviour, the way culture is transmitted across
generations, and the contrasts between different cultures.
Psychologists need to take in someones culture to full understand where they are
Branches in Psych:
o Physiological psychology, Comparative psychology (evolution), Developmental
psychology, Social psychology (how others influence individuals), Sensation
and perception (5 senses), Learning, Neuropsychologist (brain), Cognitive
psychologist (memory, language, problem solving), Personality, Psychometrics
o Clinical psychology (diagnose), Clinical neuropsychologist (brain), Counseling
(marriage/school), Health, Educational, Community, Consumer (marketing
products), Engineering (ergnomics), Industrial & organizational (workplace)
CHAPTER TWO- Experiments
The Scientific Method: A seven-step system that guides how scientists should collect and
analyze data, designed to help the scientific process remain as accurate and precise as
1) Review existing theories: Become familiar with any facts/ ideas that are already
2) Formulate a hypothesis
o Operational definitions: Very specific explanations of a behaviour or variable
(Ex. 3 years of musical training on a violin between the ages of 5 and 8 years
will result in higher math grades in 3 grade than no musical training between
5 and 8 years of age.) [PSYCH *1200] Midterm #1- Review
3) How to test the hypothesis: Groups must be no different from eachother, except
for the variable.
4) Data collection: done empirically, without any biases. (using operational
5) Analyze your data using statistics: If hypothesis is not supported- change/fix
hypothesis, If hypothesis was supported- Inspect data for mistakes, consider
alternative explanations for results.
6) Report the findings: Written publication to allow work to be reviewed, criticized,
and scrutinized by other experts in the area- makes it more valid/ sound.
7) Revise original theory: A back and forth process becomes more and more
2 advantages of the scientific method:
Requires researchers to be extremely clear and precise (no grey area).
Trains researchers to be skeptical and critical of their own and others work (critical
Experimental research: The researcher manipulates a variable & Compares performance
across different groups.
Correlational research: Interested in the relation between variables, No manipulation, just
measure two variables.
o Independent variable:
the variable that is manipulated
Think IV, the doctor is manipulating the patient
o Dependent variable:
the variable that is measured
o Experimental group:
the group of Ps that receives the manipulation
o Control group:
the group of Ps that do not receive the manipulation
Treating both groups the same:
Equal number of males and females, Same age distribution in each group, Everyone
tested at same time of day in same room, Everyone given same instructions, set of
words to study, and amount of time to study.
Extraneous variable: Any variable other than the independent variable that can have
an effect on the dependent variable.
Need to make sure two groups are made up of same types of Ps
Match Ps: Match each P in experimental group with a P in the control
group based on several potentially relevant factors. (twin in opposite
Random sampling: Each person in the larger population has an equal
chance of being included in the study
Random assignment: Each person in your study has an equal chance of
going into either of your two groups