PSYC 2310 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Law School Admission Test, Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor, Antisocial Personality Disorder

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Published on 23 Nov 2011
School
University of Guelph
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2310
Professor
[Psych*1200] Midterm #2 - Review
Chapter 9- Intelligence (9 Q’s)
Intelligence in historical perspective
Intelligence: The ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and
deal with the environment
Sir Francis Galton (England, 1869) influenced by Darwin, argued mental ability is
inherited.
Attempted to measure efficiency of the nervous system related to mental skills
(unfavoured & failed because they weren’t related)
Alfred Binet (France, early 1900’s) argued mental ability came with age & that
mental competence remains constant with age.
Developed intelligence tests Mental age - age which an individual performs
intellectually
William Stern expanded mental age to develop intelligence quotient (IQ)
IQ = (Mental age/chronical age) x 100
Wasn’t accurate because of ages, increase in societys IQ.
Deviation IQ – now used, intelligence test relative to scores of large
samples.
American intelligence tests:
Stanford-Binet test ( Terman, 1920’s)
Mostly verbal items, produces a single IQ score
Wechsler Scales most widely used tests today in USA
Verbal & non verbal activities
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence
Produce verbal IQ score, performance IQ score and full-scale IQ score
Group intelligence tests IQ tests administered to many people at once
Use written questions
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[Psych*1200] Midterm #2 - Review
Ex. Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Test
Achievement tests discover how much someone knows
Good predictor of future performance, but assumes everyone has had same
opportunity.
Aptitude tests Measure potential for future learning and performance (SAT, GRE,
MSAT, LSAT)
‘fairer,’ but hard to construct test not based on prior knowledge.
Standards for Psychological Tests
Psychological tests measure individual differences related to a psychological
concept or construct
Keys for good tests:
Reliability consistency in measurement
Test-retest reliability: Administer to same group of Ps twice and
correlate scores
Internal consistency: All items within a test measure the same thing
Interjudge reliability: Consistency when different people score the same
test
Validity Refers to the accuracy of measurement
Construct validity: test measures what it is supposed to measure.
Content validity: items on test measure all knowledge that comprise
the construct.
Predictive validity: the test score accurately predict/correlates with
criterion.
Standardization designed so scores can show your results compared to
population (under similar conditions)
Norms: test results that act as basis for interpreting your score
Normal distribution: bell curve (ex. IQ- highest is 100- average)
Environment: instructions/procedures that control extraneous factors
across situations
The Nature of Intelligence: 2 approaches for studying intelligence:
Psychometric approach Statistical study of psychological tests (how people differ)
Attemps to produce measurement-based map of mind & intelligence
Identify & measure mental abilities that underlie test performance
Spearman (1923) believes performance depends more on general
intelligence
Factor analysis: tool used to find ‘clusters’ or common elements in a set
of tests, and identify what underlying ability is related to the high
correlation.
The g factor: general intelligence that is part of all intellectual
performance, most important core aspect of intelligence.
Thurstone believes performance depends more on 7 primary mental
abilities.
1) space: reasoning of visual scenes
2) verbal comprehension: understand verbal words
3) word fluency: producing verbal words
4) number facility: deal with numbers
5) perceptual speed: recognize visual patterns
6) rote memory: memorization
7) reasoning: deal with novel problems
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[Psych*1200] Midterm #2 - Review
Cattell and Horn:
Break down Spearman’s general intelligence into two distinct abilities:
Crystallized intelligence: Ability to apply previous knowledge to
current problems.
Fluid intelligence: Ability to deal with novel problem-solving
situations without any previous knowledge.
Progress in life from using fluid intelligence more to using crystallized
intelligence more.
Fluid intelligence decline with age, crystallized intelligence remains
stable.
Gardner believes 6 multiple intelligences based on adaption to
environmental demands.
Linguistic, mathematical, visual-spatial
»Tested by current intelligence tests
Musical, body-kinesthetic, personal
»Not tested by current intelligence tests
Savants: intellectually disabled in general, but posses specific
incredible skills.
Emotional intelligence:
Ability to
Read others’ emotions accurately
Respond to others appropriately
Motivate oneself
Regulate and control one’s own emotional responses
High scores correlated with success, marriage, childrearing, etc.
Cognitive process approach:
relate individual variation of psychometrics to
cognitive skills (why ppl differ)
Specific thought processes that underlie mental abilities
Explore information processing & cognitive processes involved in intelligence
Sternberg’s (1998) Triarchic theory of intelligence cognitive processes of
intelligence
Three components
Metacomponents: higher order processes
»Used to plan and regulate task performance
»Include problem-solving skills
Performance components: second level processes
»Actual mental processes used to perform task
»Include processing, recall, motor behaviours
Knowledge-acquisition components: third level processes
»Allow us to learn from experience, store information,
combine new insights with previous information
3 manifestations of intelligence:
analytical: academically oriented skills
practical: skills to cope with everyday demands
creative: skills to adapt with novel problems.
Influences on intelligence
Ethnic differences:
Group differences, not necessarily individual
Much overlap between distributions
No support for genetic interpretation (race doesn’t exist)
Due to environmental factors?
Better nutrition, educational opportunities
Sex differences: have different patterns of cognitive skills
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Document Summary

Intelligence: the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and deal with the environment. Sir francis galton (england, 1869) influenced by darwin, argued mental ability is inherited. Attempted to measure efficiency of the nervous system related to mental skills (unfavoured & failed because they weren"t related) Alfred binet (france, early 1900"s) argued mental ability came with age & that mental competence remains constant with age. Developed intelligence tests mental age - age which an individual performs intellectually. William stern expanded mental age to develop intelligence quotient (iq) Iq = (mental age/chronical age) x 100: wasn"t accurate because of ages, increase in societys iq, deviation iq now used, intelligence test relative to scores of large. Stanford-binet test ( terman, 1920"s: mostly verbal items, produces a single iq score. Wechsler scales most widely used tests today in usa. Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence.

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