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Winter 2010. includes summarized textbook notes (and lecture notes within) of material on MIDTERM #2

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2310
Betty Onyura

[Psych*1200] Midterm #2 - Review Chapter 9- Intelligence (9 Qs) Intelligence in historical perspective Intelligence: The ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and deal with the environment Sir Francis Galton (England, 1869) influenced by Darwin, argued mental ability is inherited. Attempted to measure efficiency of the nervous system related to mental skills (unfavoured & failed because they werent related) Alfred Binet (France, early 1900s) argued mental ability came with age & that mental competence remains constant with age. Developed intelligence tests Mental age - age which an individual performs intellectually William Stern expanded mental age to develop intelligence quotient (IQ) IQ = (Mental age/chronical age) x 100 Wasnt accurate because of ages, increase in societys IQ. Deviation IQ now used, intelligence test relative to scores of large samples. American intelligence tests: Stanford-Binet test ( Terman, 1920s) Mostly verbal items, produces a single IQ score Wechsler Scales most widely used tests today in USA Verbal & non verbal activities Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Produce verbal IQ score, performance IQ score and full-scale IQ score Group intelligence tests IQ tests administered to many people at once Use written questions [Psych*1200] Midterm #2 - Review Ex. Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Test Achievement tests discover how much someone knows Good predictor of future performance, but assumes everyone has had same opportunity. Aptitude tests Measure potential for future learning and performance (SAT, GRE, MSAT, LSAT) fairer, but hard to construct test not based on prior knowledge. Standards for Psychological Tests Psychological tests measure individual differences related to a psychological concept or construct Keys for good tests: Reliability consistency in measurement Test-retest reliability: Administer to same group of Ps twice and correlate scores Internal consistency: All items within a test measure the same thing Interjudge reliability: Consistency when different people score the same test Validity Refers to the accuracy of measurement Construct validity: test measures what it is supposed to measure. Content validity: items on test measure all knowledge that comprise the construct. Predictive validity: the test score accurately predict/correlates with criterion. Standardization designed so scores can show your results compared to population (under similar conditions) Norms: test results that act as basis for interpreting your score Normal distribution: bell curve (ex. IQ- highest is 100- average) Environment: instructions/procedures that control extraneous factors across situations The Nature of Intelligence: 2 approaches for studying intelligence: Psychometric approach Statistical study of psychological tests (how people differ) Attemps to produce measurement-based map of mind & intelligence Identify & measure mental abilities that underlie test performance Spearman (1923) believes performance depends more on general intelligence Factor analysis: tool used to find clusters or common elements in a set of tests, and identify what underlying ability is related to the high correlation. The g factor: general intelligence that is part of all intellectual performance, most important core aspect of intelligence. Thurstone believes performance depends more on 7 primary mental abilities. 1) space: reasoning of visual scenes 2) verbal comprehension: understand verbal words 3) word fluency: producing verbal words 4) number facility: deal with numbers 5) perceptual speed: recognize visual patterns 6) rote memory: memorization 7) reasoning: deal with novel problems [Psych*1200] Midterm #2 - Review Cattell and Horn: Break down Spearmans general intelligence into two distinct abilities: Crystallized intelligence: Ability to apply previous knowledge to current problems. Fluid intelligence: Ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations without any previous knowledge. Progress in life from using fluid intelligence more to using crystallized intelligence more. Fluid intelligence decline with age, crystallized intelligence remains stable. Gardner believes 6 multiple intelligences based on adaption to environmental demands. Linguistic, mathematical, visual-spatial Tested by current intelligence tests Musical, body-kinesthetic, personal Not tested by current intelligence tests Savants: intellectually disabled in general, but posses specific incredible skills. Emotional intelligence: Ability to Read others emotions accurately Respond to others appropriately Motivate oneself Regulate and control ones own emotional responses High scores correlated with success, marriage, childrearing, etc. Cognitive process approach: relate individual variation of psychometrics to cognitive skills (why ppl differ) Specific thought processes that underlie mental abilities Explore information processing & cognitive processes involved in intelligence Sternbergs (1998) Triarchic theory of intelligence cognitive processes of intelligence Three components Metacomponents: higher order processes Used to plan and regulate task performance Include problem-solving skills Performance components: second level processes Actual mental processes used to perform task Include processing, recall, motor behaviours Knowledge-acquisition components: third level processes Allow us to learn from experience, store information, combine new insights with previous information 3 manifestations of intelligence: analytical: academically oriented skills practical: skills to cope with everyday demands creative: skills to adapt with novel problems. Influences on intelligence Ethnic differences: Group differences, not necessarily individual Much overlap between distributions No support for genetic interpretation (race doesnt exist) Due to environmental factors? Better nutrition, educational opportunities Sex differences: have different patterns of cognitive skills [Psych*1200] Midterm #2 - Review Females better on tests of Perceptual speed Verbal fluency Mathematical calculation Fine motor coordination Males better on tests of Spatial tasks Throwing & catching objects Mathematical reasoning Chapter 12 Personality (10 Qs) What is Personality? Personality Distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that characterize a persons response to situations Three characteristics of personality: Identity You are like no one else. Internal causes caused by internal, not environmental factors. Organized persons behaviour fits together in a meaningful fashion. Personality Assessment 6 approaches to assess personality: Interviews: Structured set of standardized questions Collect research, make diagnosis.
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