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Winter 2010. includes summarized textbook notes (and lecture notes within) of material on EXAM

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2310
Betty Onyura

PSYCH*1200 [Exam Review] Chapter 15: Stress and Health The Nature of Stress: -Stress has been viewed in 3 different ways as a stimuls stimuli/events in the environment that place demands on us as a respone physiological, cognitive, behavioral components. as organism-environment interatistress is a pattern of cognitive appraisals, physiological responses, and behavioral tendencies that occurs in response to an imbalance between the demands of the situation & resources needed to meet them. Stressors: Eliciting Stimliplace demands on us that danger our well-being and require us to adapt o Range of severity Microstressor daily hassles & annoyances Catastrophic evensoccur unexpectedly, affects a large number of people Major negative evens stressful life event (victim of abuse/illness, loss of loved one) o can also be events which.. the person has little or no control over. occur suddenly and unpredictably impact a person over a long period of time life event scales measure the amount of life stress a person has experienced over time. The Stress Response: 4 parts of appraisal process for stressful situations o 1) Primary appraisal appraisal of the demands of situation what do I have to do? o 2) Secondary appraisal appraisal of the resources available to cope with it how can I cope? o 3) judgments of consequences of situation could be what are the costs to me? o 4) appraisal of the personal meaning (what the outcome implies about us) what does this say about my beliefs in myself? Distortions/mistaken appraisals can occur at any of these stages, and casue an inappropriate stress response. Chronic stress and the GAS o General Adaptation Syndrome Physiological reaction to prolonged stress (Hans Selye) o Three phases 1) Alarm activation of sympathetic nervous system & release of stress hormones Increased arrousal 2) Resistance o adrenal gland releases epinephran & noneprinephran & cortisol to maintain the increased arousal continue to recruit resources until depletion PSYCH*1200 [Exam Review] 3) Exhaustion o adrenal glands can no longer function normally resources are dangerously depleted. (increased vulnerability to disease) Stress and Health: o stress effects psychological well-being of people who experienced catastrophic events the most. o Rape-trauma syndrome nervous & fear for long time period afterwards. o Confounding variables of stress: o Negative life events o Psychological stress o Possible third factor (neuroticism tendency of negative emotions & maladaptive behaviour) Stress and illness o Consequences of stress o Increase in chronic condtiarthritis, bronchitis, emphysema, ulcers Men heart disease Women migraines o Increased chance of health prol8% among women, 6% among men o Decreased immune functin demonstrated to occur within 24 hours o Worsen pre-existing conditostress hormones contribute to blocked arteries o Stress causes adrenal glands to secrete cortosil, elevated levels for long periods can damage the hippocampus & memory. Vulnerability and Protective Factors Vulnerability factors o increase susceptibility to stress o lack of support network o poor coping o skills pessimism -Protective factors o environmental or personal resources that help cope with stress o social support o coping skills o optimism -Social support -blunts impact of stress -produces greater sense of identity and meaning in peoples lives -may prevent maladaptive ways of coping (alcohol, drugs) -enhances immune system (produce more immune cells) -Cognitive factors o Hardiness o 3 Cs control they have control over situation & outcome * strongest PSYCH*1200 [Exam Review] commitment belief that what they do is important challenge view situation is a challenge & opportunity- not a threat -coping self-efficacy belief we can successfully cope with stressor -specific to situation -increased efficacy from -previous successes -observing others -social persuasion/encouragement -low levels of arousal -shown to increase immune system functioning -Optimism -higher beliefs about success in the future, loweres anxiety. -Personality factors -Type A high competitiveness, ambition, aggressiveness, hostility, urgency -men & woman have 2x risk of coronary heart disease -Type B agreeable, relaxed, less sense of time urgency -Finding meaning in stressful life events -spiritual beliefs can help with effective coping -some beliefs can have negative effect on adjustment ( punished) -Physiological reactivity -individual differences in reactivity (autonomic & endocrine) affect well-being -physiological toughness protective factor -involves relationship of 2 hormone types from the adrenal gland during stress. -catecholamines (epinephrine, noeprinephrine) -corticosteroids (coritsol) -both mobolize fight or flight response in face of strssors -cortisol arousal effects last longer, more damaging (unless catecholamine are much higher levels over longer time) (1) low resting cortosil levels, low cortosil secretion response to stress, quick return to baseline cortosil levels after stress is over. (2) low catecholamine level, quick & strong response to stress, quick decline in secretion & arousal after stress Coping with Stress -Problem-focused coping confront & deal directly with demands, or adapt situation-no stress. -studying, dealin with problems -Emotional-focused coping dont deal directly, manage the emotional response that result. -denying, avoiding, accepting stress -negative outcomes with denial & avoidance -positive with identifying & changing thought patterns (relaxing) -Seeking social support turning to others for assistance & emotional support o Effectiveness of coping strategies
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