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PSYC 2310 Study Guide - Final Guide: Transtheoretical Model, Operant Conditioning, Sensory Cortex


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2310
Professor
Betty Onyura
Study Guide
Final

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PSYCH*1200 [Exam Review]
Chapter 15: Stress and Health
The Nature of Stress:
-Stress has been viewed in 3 different ways
as a stimulus stimuli/events in the environment that place demands on us
as a response physiological, cognitive, behavioral components.
as organism-environment interaction stress is a pattern of cognitive appraisals, physiological
responses, and behavioral tendencies that occurs in response to an imbalance between the
demands of the situation & resources needed to meet them.
Stressors:
Eliciting Stimuli place demands on us that danger our well-being and require us to adapt
oRange of severity
Microstressors daily hassles & annoyances
Catastrophic events occur unexpectedly, affects a large number of people
Major negative events stressful life event (victim of abuse/illness, loss of
loved one)
ocan also be events which..
the person has little or no control over.
occur suddenly and unpredictably
impact a person over a long period of time
life event scales measure the amount of life stress a person has experienced over time.
The Stress Response:
4 parts of appraisal process for stressful situations
o1) Primary appraisal appraisal of the demands of situation
what do I have to do?
o2) Secondary appraisal appraisal of the resources available to cope with it
how can I cope?
o3) judgments of consequences of situation could be
what are the costs to me?
o4) appraisal of the personal meaning (what the outcome implies about us)
what does this say about my beliefs in myself?
Distortions/mistaken appraisals can occur at any of these stages, and casue an inappropriate stress
response.
Chronic stress and the GAS
oGeneral Adaptation Syndrome Physiological reaction to prolonged stress (Hans Selye)
oThree phases
1) Alarm
activation of sympathetic nervous system & release of stress hormones
Increased arrousal
2) Resistance
oadrenal gland releases epinephran & noneprinephran & cortisol to
maintain the increased arousal continue to recruit resources until
depletion

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PSYCH*1200 [Exam Review]
3) Exhaustion
oadrenal glands can no longer function normally resources are
dangerously depleted. (increased vulnerability to disease)
Stress and Health:
ostress effects psychological well-being of people who experienced catastrophic events the
most.
oRape-trauma syndrome nervous & fear for long time period afterwards.
oConfounding variables of stress:
oNegative life events
oPsychological stress
oPossible third factor (neuroticism tendency of negative emotions & maladaptive
behaviour)
Stress and illness
oConsequences of stress
oIncrease in chronic conditions arthritis, bronchitis, emphysema, ulcers
Men heart disease
Women migraines
oIncreased chance of health problems 8% among women, 6% among men
oDecreased immune function demonstrated to occur within 24 hours
oWorsen pre-existing conditions stress hormones contribute to blocked arteries
oStress causes adrenal glands to secrete cortosil, elevated levels for long periods can damage
the hippocampus & memory.
Vulnerability and Protective Factors
Vulnerability factors
oincrease susceptibility to stress
olack of support network
opoor coping
oskills pessimism
-Protective factors
oenvironmental or personal resources that help cope with stress
osocial support
ocoping skills
ooptimism
-Social support
-blunts impact of stress
-produces greater sense of identity and meaning in peoples lives
-may prevent maladaptive ways of coping (alcohol, drugs)
-enhances immune system (produce more immune cells)
-Cognitive factors
oHardiness
o3 C’s
control they have control over situation & outcome * strongest

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PSYCH*1200 [Exam Review]
commitment belief that what they do is important
challenge view situation is a challenge & opportunity- not a threat
-coping self-efficacy belief we can successfully cope with stressor
-specific to situation
-increased efficacy from
-previous successes
-observing others
-social persuasion/encouragement
-low levels of arousal
-shown to increase immune system functioning
-Optimism
-higher beliefs about success in the future, loweres anxiety.
-Personality factors
-Type A high competitiveness, ambition, aggressiveness, hostility, urgency
-men & woman have 2x risk of coronary heart disease
-Type B agreeable, relaxed, less sense of time urgency
-Finding meaning in stressful life events
-spiritual beliefs can help with effective coping
-some beliefs can have negative effect on adjustment ( punished)
-Physiological reactivity
-individual differences in reactivity (autonomic & endocrine) affect well-being
-physiological toughness protective factor
-involves relationship of 2 hormone types from the adrenal gland during stress.
-catecholamines (epinephrine, noeprinephrine)
-corticosteroids (coritsol)
-both mobolize ‘fight or flight’ response in face of strssors
-cortisol arousal effects last longer, more damaging (unless catecholamine are
much higher levels over longer time)
(1) low resting cortosil levels, low cortosil secretion response to stress, quick return to baseline
cortosil levels after stress is over.
(2) low catecholamine level, quick & strong response to stress, quick decline in secretion &
arousal after stress
Coping with Stress
-Problem-focused coping confront & deal directly with demands, or adapt situation-no stress.
-studying, dealin with problems
-Emotional-focused coping don’t deal directly, manage the emotional response that result.
-denying, avoiding, accepting stress
-negative outcomes with denial & avoidance
-positive with identifying & changing thought patterns (relaxing)
-Seeking social support turning to others for assistance & emotional support
oEffectiveness of coping strategies
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