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PSYC 2310
Saba Safdar

Social Psychology Midterm 1 Important InformationHistory of Social Psychologytho Developed at the end of the 19 centuryo Norman Triplett one of the pioneerso Floyd Allport wrote an important book on individuals in their social contextso Other major contributorsy Muzafer Sherif experimental research on social influencey Kurt Lewin coined the term action researchy Solomon Asch studied conformity and why in the presence of others we conform to things we know are wrongy Leon Festinger cognitive dissonance and how people look at others to learn about themselvesy Stanley Milgram obedience ex shock experimentChapter 1 Key Conceptso Gesalt Psychology Whole Formy Theory that proposed objects are viewed holisticallyy Emphasized the importance of looking at the whole object and how it appears in peoples minds as opposed to looking at specific objective parts of the objecty Looks at how people interpret their surroundings and the cognitive processes involvesy How we organize our perceptual experienceso Positive Psychology New branch of psychologyy A recent branch of psychology that studies the virtues and strength of individualso Behaviourist measurable phenomenay focuses on the impact of positive and negative events on behavioury It is a theory of learning that describes peoples behaviour as acquired through conditioningy Argued that behaviour followed by a reward would continue and a behaviour followed by a punishment would not continue o Sociocultural Perspectiveso Humanistic Perspectiveso Social Perception How people form impressions and make inferences about other people and eventsy We form impressions easily and frequentlyo Self Perception How we think about ourselvesy How these views are dependent on our sociocultural environment o SelfFulfilling Prophecy Peoples expectations about someone elses traits influence how they act toward that person eliciting the behaviour that is expectedy This leads people to confirm the beliefs they have and makes it difficult for them to be disconfirmedo Hindsight Bias The tendency to see a given outcome as inevitable once the actual outcome has already happenedy Once people learn something they see it as obvious and common sense without recognizing that the exact opposite statement would have also sounded believableThe Self in the Social WorldHealthy Self KnowledgeAccording to Taylor and Brown good mental health includes several systematic distortions1 Exaggerating positive selfevaluation we think we are going to make it we exaggerate out abilities our positive intentions 2 Exaggerating perception of control we think we have control over our life think we wont be victimized3 Having unrealistic optimismo Caution there is an optimal margin of illusion for healthy adjustmentIntrospection The process of looking inward and examining our thoughts and feelingso One way of developing selfknowledgeo Look at why you feel the way you do o Limitations people dont engage in introspection often reasons for some of our behaviors are hidden from our conscious awarenessSelfesteem Selfesteem is a sense of personal wortho There are two roots to self esteem1 Social feedback you feel good about yourself because people say positive things about you2 Direct experience of efficacy ex I am smart because I get good gradeso There is an average point that is formed in early childhood that generally stays with you your whole life It can fluctuate when positive of negative events occuro To increase our selfesteem we engage in social comparison y Downward comparison looking at people who do worse than youy Upward comparison people who have done well used to inspire uso Low self esteem the vicious cycley Low self esteemnegative expectationslow effort high anxietyfailureselfblamefurther confirmation of low selfesteem
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