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midterm 2 review.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2310
Saba Safdar

Social Psychology Midterm 2 ReviewConformity LectureConformity a change in behaviour or belief as a result of real or imaged pressure from otherso When we are uncertain what to do we follow the crowdo We follow authority even if it doesnt make sense ex Urine sample request in lectureMuzafer Sherif Autokinetic Effecto Perception of light in a darkened room participants were to guess how much the light moved each time it flashed when in fact it didnt move at all Results Alone each participant reported a different amount Groups conformed to the group average gradually agreeing to 4inches After 4 group sittings participants tested alone again but still conform to the average they agreed upon previously in the groupo When in a group people merge their answers closer to what others say and the learning staysSolomon Asch Unambiguous stimuli length of lineo Set up a situation where the correct answer is obvious length of a line matched to another ResultsAlone 1 answered wrong Groups of 4 with 3 giving the wrong answer only 23 always gave the correct answer 77 made at least 1 error 32 made 7 or more errorso Demonstrates normative social influence conforming to other people in order to be liked and acceptedMultiGenerational Normso 4 person group with 3 confederates and the replacement of the oldest group member with a new naive member 11 times Results The group norm of 12 inches stayed the same even when there were no confederates leftFactors Related to Conformityo Nature of the taskThe more difficult and ambiguous the task the more likely to are to conform When the task is easy and clear we conform through social influence not informativeo Individual differencesConformity varies in different stages of the life span childhood adolescence and old age Once you have lived a diverse life in older age conformity tends to drop in the 50s o Group size As group size increases conformity can increase but there is a limit usually under 5 group membersWhy the Majority Doesnt Always Ruleo Minority influence Serge Moscovici argues that minority can influence the behaviour or beliefs of the majority withPersistence consistency is the key must maintain that your belief is correct and not wavero Dissenters are more effective if they are Independent thinkers Persistent Have authority Conformity Studieso Generally there is more conformity among the general population than the student populationo Generally there is more conformity in collectivist cultures than individualistic cultureso Level of conformity is highest when people have interdependent valueso Obedience studies more obedient in Spain Italy Australia UK and JordanMilgrams Experimento Participants were asked by the experimenter to shock a confederate which they didnt know was part of study whenever they got an answer wrongo Participants would scream and ask to leave but experimenter would encourage participant to continueo Some participants refused to continue to hurt the confederate but more than 60 of participants administered the highest shock possibleModel of Cult Members each stage has reduced attentional capacityattention is focused on cult and less on thinking about decisions makes sure that people continue to engage in cult 1 Softening up stage approach people who dont have big social circles2 Compliance stage cult tells them to come and see for yourself people are asked to explore cult 3 Internalization stage acceptance of the cult4 Consolidation stage cult encourages members to bring new members and to offer up gifts to cult members are expected to engage in costly behavior when you invest in a task and give a lot you cannot go back Power Distance
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