PSYC 2310 Study Guide - Final Guide: Clinical Psychology, Psychological Testing, Egocentrism
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Clinical Psychologist-Get an undergraduate degree, then graduate school in psychology,
then 1 yr internship, work in a hospital or university.
-Psychologists cannot prescribe prescriptions
-Works with children and adults to fix and assess psychological issues.
Registered Psychologist- Follows a clinical psychologist and takes an additional year of
training and exams to become a registered psychologist.
Psychiatrist-Have an undergraduate degree then go to medical school and get an MD then
do supervised psychiatry then work in a hospital etc.
-Psychiatrists can prescribe drugs because they have a medical degree.
Psychoanalyst- the top end of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Additional training in a
psychoanalytical institute to become a psychoanalyst
Theory-A set of statements that explain how and why certain events are related.
Catharsis theory-if you watch powerful emotional forces you lose some emotions.
Social learning theory-watch what happens, learn strategies for dealing with situations
Hypothesis-Based off of the theory you agree with. You try to prove or disprove it.
Experimental research-Research methods that involve manipulations to establish cause
and effect relationships between 2 or more events
Independent Variable-Thing you manipulate/change
Dependent Variable-Stays constant and the independent variable is applied to it.
Sample-A small group of people that accurately represents the population.
Random assignment to conditions- equal chance to get in either group. E,g, equal chance
to get in 8hr sleep group or 4 hrs sleep group.
Random Sample-That every person (of the group you are testing) has an equal chance of
getting into the study. E.g. random sample of our class would be using the class list and
picking every 3rd person. Its very hard to get.
Placebo effect-Changing behaviour that occurs because the belief that they are receiving
Placebo control groups-When there is improvement of symptoms not due to specific
treatments, idea that any treatment will cause improvement. Some will show improvement
simply because someone is caring and helpful.
Meta-analysis-A statistical procedure for combining the results of different studies that
examine the same topic.
Double blind procedure-Researcher and participant do not know which condition the
participant is assigned to (control or manipulated group)
Informed consent-Before agreeing to participate in a study you must be told that you have
the right to withdraw, fully informed on what the study involves and also the risks
Control Group-the group that doesn’t have the thing they are testing, e.g. placebo that has
no effect on the body.
Demand characteristics-cues used by research participants to guess the purpose of a
hypothesis of a study, thus altering their behaviour accordingly.
Experimenter expectancy effects-Subtle and unintentional ways an experimenter
influences the participants to act a certain way. Which usually proves their hypothesis
Operational definition-Defining a concept or variable in terms of the procedures used to
produce or measure it.
Replication-Repeating a study to determine if the original results can be duplicated.
Confounding of variables-In an experiment the intertwining of an independent variable
with another variable so its difficult to determine which causes the change in the dependent
Longitudinal design-Research that repeatedly tests the same cohort as they age.
Cross-sectional design-Research that simultaneously compares people of different ages at
a particular point in time.
Correlational research-Research that measures 2, or more naturally occurring variables
and examines whether they are statistically related and how strongly they are related. NO
manipulation of variables.
Positive Correlation- that higher scores on 1 variable means high scores on the other
Negative correlation-means higher scores on 1variable means lower scores on the other
Correlational fallacy-Concluding from a single study/correlation and applying it to
everything…way too generalized.
Correlation coefficient- a number from -1 to +1
Probability Level-Probability that the correlation happened by accident.
Statistical significance-Having a p of .05 or less. Means that the correlation is significant.
Factor Analysis-A technique that allows researchers to reduce large numbers of measures
to a small number of clusters.
Multivariate statistics-lots of correlations not just 1. use to see if there is a pattern and can
help to see which causes which
Scheme-organized patterns of thoughts and actions. It is an “internal framework” that
guides our interaction with the world.
Accommodation-You change the scheme to fit the new information. Assimilation does not
work so you must change your scheme. E.g. Some heavy things float does not fit with the
schema that the heavier the thing the less likely it will float…change schema. (Cookies and
sippie cup advert)
Assimilation-Fit new information into existing scheme,
Orienting Reflex-When there is a new smell, touch, sound the baby moves towards it.
Built in at birth.
Habituation-If you present the same stimulus the response goes away. If you present a
different response the stimulus returns. Newborns show discrimination between different
Infant Imitation-People originally thought it was a reflex but babies can and do imitate
and this is shown though the idea that the baby chooses when to imitate.
Sensorimotor Period-from birth to 2 yrs. Learn to co-ordinate senses with motor
movement. Knowledge of world is based on senses. Assimilation/accommodation and
Preoperational Period-Difficulties with conservation. Now know that objects do not
disappear but have trouble with aspects of the object. Not conserving the shape/water
through the transformation. Child cannot reverse the action of the water. Child does not
focus on the 2nd dimension of the width of the class just height of water. Fit into the scheme
of higher =more.
Idea of egocentrism.
Concrete operational Period- Right in the middle of preoperational and formal
operational periods of growth. Just the middle stage.
Formal Operational Period-Now the child can do abstract reasoning and test
hypothesizes. Younger children have problems with hypothesizing things and may change
2 things at once during trial and error. Has to do with what’s been taught in school but also
u have to reach this level on your own too.
Object Performance-Test of the Semsorimotor period. Present a baby with an object then
cover it up. The baby then assumes that the object no longer exists. Says something about
children’s memory, does not work with absent parents.
Conservation-pre-operational period. Children cannot conserve things. Having 2 glasses
the same size with same amount of juice in children know it’s the same but when 1 is
poured into a tall thin glass they say the tall thin glass has more because of the height.
Doesn’t take into account the 2nd dimension. Can try to teach conservation but it does not
Egocentrism-Preoperational stage. Is the idea that children cannot take the perspective of
another person. The “mountain test” was created to test this. One person sat on 1 side of the
toy mountain and a doll was placed on the other side. The child can see a house whereas
the doll cannot, the child is asked what the doll can see. Usually they say what they can
see. However Piaget was proved wrong because children are actually not very Egocentric.
Kohlberg-Basically stole the beginning of Piaget’s research of development and decided
morality has to do with human reasoning. Asked people what they thought of a specific
dilemma….E.g. Heinz and the Druggist, Heinz ended up stealing the drug to save his wife
because the druggist was going to charge him more money than he could afford
Preconventional Level- Orientated for their own self interest and the punishments for their
-e.g. Heinz shouldn’t because he’s go to jail but he should because people will be mad at
him for not saving his wife.
Conventional Level-Emphasizes the rules of society (laws and values)
-e.g. Heinz shouldn’t because its breaking the law and should to save his wife (values).
Postconventional Level-Reason through moral principles and abstract ideas.
-E.g. Martin Luther King went to prison and didn’t think of laws or rules or himself but he
thought of the abstract idea of justice and freedom.
Object relation-Images are a mental representation that people form of themselves and
others as a result of early experience with caregivers
Attachment-The strong emotional bond that develops between children and the primary
Separation anxiety-Distress experienced when children are separated from their primary
caregivers, peaks at age 12-16months.
Authoritative parents-Caregivers who are controlling but warm. Establish clear rules but
with a caring supportive atmosphere.
Authoritarian parents-Caregivers who are controlling and provide a cold, unresponsive,
Clinical psychologist-get an undergraduate degree, then graduate school in psychology, then 1 yr internship, work in a hospital or university. Works with children and adults to fix and assess psychological issues. Registered psychologist- follows a clinical psychologist and takes an additional year of training and exams to become a registered psychologist. Psychiatrist-have an undergraduate degree then go to medical school and get an md then do supervised psychiatry then work in a hospital etc. Psychiatrists can prescribe drugs because they have a medical degree. Psychoanalyst- the top end of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Additional training in a psychoanalytical institute to become a psychoanalyst. Theory-a set of statements that explain how and why certain events are related. Catharsis theory-if you watch powerful emotional forces you lose some emotions. Social learning theory-watch what happens, learn strategies for dealing with situations. Hypothesis-based off of the theory you agree with.