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Psychology review final exam.doc

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PSYC 2310
Tad Mc Ilwraith

Clinical Psychologist-Get an undergraduate degree, then graduate school in psychology, then 1 yr internship, work in a hospital or university. -Psychologists cannot prescribe prescriptions -Works with children and adults to fix and assess psychological issues. Registered Psychologist- Follows a clinical psychologist and takes an additional year of training and exams to become a registered psychologist. Psychiatrist-Have an undergraduate degree then go to medical school and get an MD then do supervised psychiatry then work in a hospital etc. -Psychiatrists can prescribe drugs because they have a medical degree. Psychoanalyst- the top end of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Additional training in a psychoanalytical institute to become a psychoanalyst Theory-A set of statements that explain how and why certain events are related. Catharsis theory-if you watch powerful emotional forces you lose some emotions. Social learning theory-watch what happens, learn strategies for dealing with situations Hypothesis-Based off of the theory you agree with. You try to prove or disprove it. Experimental research-Research methods that involve manipulations to establish cause and effect relationships between 2 or more events Independent Variable-Thing you manipulate/change Dependent Variable-Stays constant and the independent variable is applied to it. Sample-A small group of people that accurately represents the population. Random assignment to conditions- equal chance to get in either group. E,g, equal chance to get in 8hr sleep group or 4 hrs sleep group. Random Sample-That every person (of the group you are testing) has an equal chance of getting into therdtudy. E.g. random sample of our class would be using the class list and picking every 3 person. Its very hard to get. Placebo effect-Changing behaviour that occurs because the belief that they are receiving the treatment. Placebo control groups-When there is improvement of symptoms not due to specific treatments, idea that any treatment will cause improvement. Some will show improvement simply because someone is caring and helpful. Meta-analysis-A statistical procedure for combining the results of different studies that examine the same topic. Double blind procedure-Researcher and participant do not know which condition the participant is assigned to (control or manipulated group) Informed consent-Before agreeing to participate in a study you must be told that you have the right to withdraw, fully informed on what the study involves and also the risks involved. Control Group-the group that doesnt have the thing they are testing, e.g. placebo that has no effect on the body. Demand characteristics-cues used by research participants to guess the purpose of a hypothesis of a study, thus altering their behaviour accordingly. Experimenter expectancy effects-Subtle and unintentional ways an experimenter influences the participants to act a certain way. Which usually proves their hypothesis correct. Operational definition-Defining a concept or variable in terms of the procedures used to produce or measure it. Replication-Repeating a study to determine if the original results can be duplicated. Confounding of variables-In an experiment the intertwining of an independent variable with another variable so its difficult to determine which causes the change in the dependent variable. Longitudinal design-Research that repeatedly tests the same cohort as they age. Cross-sectional design-Research that simultaneously compares people of different ages at a particular point in time. Correlational research-Research that measures 2, or more naturally occurring variables and examines whether they are statistically related and how strongly they are related. NO manipulation of variables. Positive Correlation- that higher scores on 1 variable means high scores on the other Negative correlation-means higher scores on 1variable means lower scores on the other Correlational fallacy-Concluding from a single study/correlation and applying it to everythingway too generalized. Correlation coefficient- a number from -1 to +1 Probability Level-Probability that the correlation happened by accident. Statistical significance-Having a p of .05 or less. Means that the correlation is significant. Factor Analysis-A technique that allows researchers to reduce large numbers of measures to a small number of clusters. Multivariate statistics-lots of correlations not just 1. use to see if there is a pattern and can help to see which causes which Scheme-organized patterns of thoughts and actions. It is an internal framework that guides our interaction with the world. Accommodation-You change the scheme to fit the new information. Assimilation does not work so you must change your scheme. E.g. Some heavy things float does not fit with the schema that the heavier the thing the less likely it will floatchange schema. (Cookies and sippie cup advert) Assimilation-Fit new information into existing scheme, Orienting Reflex-When there is a new smell, touch, sound the baby moves towards it. Built in at birth. Habituation-If you present the same stimulus the response goes away. If you present a different response the stimulus returns. Newborns show discrimination between different stimulis. Infant Imitation-People originally thought it was a reflex but babies can and do imitate and this is shown though the idea that the baby chooses when to imitate. Sensorimotor Period-from birth to 2 yrs. Learn to co-ordinate senses with motor movement. Knowledge of world is based on senses. Assimilation/accommodation and Object performance. Preoperational Period-Difficulties with conservation. Now know that objects do not disappear but have trouble with aspects of the object. Not conserving the shape/water through the transformation. Child cannot reverse the action of the water. Child does notfocus on the 2 dimension of the width of the class just height of water. Fit into the scheme of higher =more. Idea of egocentrism. Concrete operational Period- Right in the middle of preoperational and formal operational periods of growth. Just the middle stage. Formal Operational Period-Now the child can do abstract reasoning and test hypothesizes. Younger children have problems with hypothesizing things and may change 2 things at once during trial and error. Has to do with whats been taught in school but also u have to reach this level on your own too. Object Performance-Test of the Semsorimotor period. Present a baby with an object then cover it up. The baby then assumes that the object no longer exists. Says something about childrens memory, does not work with absent parents. Conservation-pre-operational period. Children cannot conserve things. Having 2 glasses the same size with same amount of juice in children know its the same but when 1 is poured into a tall thin glass they say the tall thin glass has more because of the height. nd Doesnt take into account the 2 dimension. Can try to teach conservation but it does not work well. Egocentrism-Preoperational stage. Is the idea that children cannot take the perspective of another person. The mountain test was created to test this. One person sat on 1 side of the toy mountain and a doll was placed on the other side. The child can see a house whereas the doll cannot, the child is asked what the doll can see. Usually they say what they can see. However Piaget was proved wro
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