PSYC 2310 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Realistic Conflict Theory, Ostracism, Byrsonima Crassifolia

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9 Oct 2012
midterm 2 11/1/2011 11:30:00 PM
CHAPTER 6: Attitudes
Defining attitudes
Attitudes evaluative reaction toward something or someone, that is exhibited in
one‟s beliefs, feelings, or intended behaviour. “state of readiness for action”
o 1) Affective component emotional reaction toward the object
Emotions, no resason/logic, values, difficult to challenge
o 2) Cognitive component thoughts, beliefs about the object.
Perusal of relevant facts, measure of pros & cons
o 3) Behavioural component intent to act
Views of attitudes:
Tri-component theory attitude is a single entity that has 3 components.
o Affective, cognitive & behavioural components > highly correlated
o Problems: (ex. Smoking, attitudes towards smoking)
Competing entities view all 3 components are separate entities.
o May or may not be inter-correlated
o Ex. Betty‟s old smoking habit
Attitude formation:
1) information people form attitudes from the information they receive from
their environment
o ex. What parents believe
2) Classical conditioning neutral stimulus repeatedly paired within another
stimulus, until the neutral one elicits the same response.
o mere exposure the greater the exposure we have to a given stimulus,
the more we like it
o subliminal persuasion persuasion that occurs when stimuli are presented
at a very rapid and unconscious level
o Method:
UCS (time with gf) UCR (happiness)
NS (smell perfume) + UCS (time with gf) UCR (happiness)
CS (smell perfume on stranger) CS (happiness)
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Ex. Deodorant+sexual stimuli positive arousal
In advertising:
*Bases of attitudes targeted
3) Operant conditioning rewards & punishment determine behaviour
o Reinforcement increase probability of behaviour
Positive reinforcement:
Behaviour + good thing happens
Ex. Press lever receive food
Negative reinforcement:
Behaviour + bad thing taken away
Ex. Smoke anxiety reduction
o Punishment decreases probability of behvaiour
Positive punishment:
Behaviour + bad thing happens
Ex. Smoke + get sick
Negative punishment:
Behaviour + good thing gets taken away
Ex. Smoke + lose friends
4) Observational learning (modeling) attitudes & behaviours are influences by
watching others attitudes & behaviours
o example bandura- bobo dolls
o heavily used in the media > both positively and negatively
Measuring attitudes
Factors influencing attitude-behvaiour link:
o Strength (ex. Passionate opinion on the death penalty, leads to volunteer)
o Accessibility (ex. Constantly asked if they voted, leads to voting)
o Specificity (ex. Staying home to study on a Friday night, better predictor)
o social norms (ex. Surrounding belief influences drinkin & driving)
Major determinant of attitude strength
o 1) Ambivalence mixed feelings on important issues (multiple & often)
more important topic > stronger attitude > more likely behaviour
o 2) Accessibility degree which concept is active in our consciousness.
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Well informed > stronger attitude> more likely behaviour
Increase of self awareness > increase attitude-behvaiour
Decrease self awareness > weaken attitude-behaviour
o 3) Direct experience autobiographical recall (ex. Student debt)
personal experience > stronger attitudes > more likely behaviour
Covert measure not directly under a person's control
o implicit attitudes:
Decision making tasks
(ex. Defining issues test of moral judgement)
Bogus pipeline
(ex. procedure fools people into disclosing their attitude)
o Non-verbal behaviour (Ex. Nodding, smiling)
Implicit association test (IAT)
Implicit relational assessment procedure (IRAP)
Overt measures under a persons conscious control
o explicit attitudes:
(ex. self-repost surveys, questionnaires)
Why is studying attitude important?
o 1) shape interpretation of the world
o 2) relatively enduring
o 3) learned
o 4) influence behaviour (prediction)
complicated relation between attitude & behaviour
o ex. Study on cheating
is it wrong? 90% said YES, 50% still cheated when marking own.
attitudes behaviour?
(La Pierre) attitudes-behaviour link?
o Socio-cultural context at the time
Visited several establishments with Chinese couple
Behaviour relative hospitality
Wrote letter asking whether Chinese patrons would be served
Attitude expressed prejudice/discrimination
Correspondence principle of attitudes & behaviours:
o must be measured at the same level of specificity or generality
o Items measuring them must have similar elements for stronger correlation
(ex. Time, context, target)
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