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Midterm

midterm 2 notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2310
Professor
Betty Onyura
Semester
Fall

Description
midterm 2 11/1/2011 11:30:00 PM CHAPTER 6: Attitudes Defining attitudes Attitudes evaluative reaction toward something or someone, that is exhibited in ones beliefs, feelings, or intended behaviour. state of readiness for action Components: o 1) Affective component emotional reaction toward the object Emotions, no resason/logic, values, difficult to challenge o 2) Cognitive component thoughts, beliefs about the object. Perusal of relevant facts, measure of pros & cons o 3) Behavioural component intent to act Views of attitudes: Tri-component theory attitude is a single entity that has 3 components. o Affective, cognitive & behavioural components > highly correlated o Problems: (ex. Smoking, attitudes towards smoking) Competing entities view all 3 components are separate entities. o May or may not be inter-correlated o Ex. Bettys old smoking habit Attitude formation: 1) information people form attitudes from the information they receive from their environment o ex. What parents believe 2) Classical conditioning neutral stimulus repeatedly paired within another stimulus, until the neutral one elicits the same response. o mere exposure the greater the exposure we have to a given stimulus, the more we like it o subliminal persuasion persuasion that occurs when stimuli are presented at a very rapid and unconscious level o Method: UCS (time with gf) UCR (happiness) NS (smell perfume) + UCS (time with gf) UCR (happiness) CS (smell perfume on stranger) CS (happiness) NS CS CS CR Ex. Deodorant+sexual stimuli positive arousal In advertising: *Bases of attitudes targeted Effective? Cognitive? Why? 3) Operant conditioning rewards & punishment determine behaviour o Reinforcement increase probability of behaviour Positive reinforcement: Behaviour + good thing happens Ex. Press lever receive food Negative reinforcement: Behaviour + bad thing taken away Ex. Smoke anxiety reduction o Punishment decreases probability of behvaiour Positive punishment: Behaviour + bad thing happens Ex. Smoke + get sick Negative punishment: Behaviour + good thing gets taken away Ex. Smoke + lose friends 4) Observational learning (modeling) attitudes & behaviours are influences by watching others attitudes & behaviours o example bandura- bobo dolls o heavily used in the media > both positively and negatively Measuring attitudes Factors influencing attitude-behvaiour link: o Strength (ex. Passionate opinion on the death penalty, leads to volunteer) o Accessibility (ex. Constantly asked if they voted, leads to voting) o Specificity (ex. Staying home to study on a Friday night, better predictor) o social norms (ex. Surrounding belief influences drinkin & driving) Major determinant of attitude strength o 1) Ambivalence mixed feelings on important issues (multiple & often) more important topic > stronger attitude > more likely behaviour o 2) Accessibility degree which concept is active in our consciousness. Well informed > stronger attitude> more likely behaviour Increase of self awareness > increase attitude-behvaiour Decrease self awareness > weaken attitude-behaviour o 3) Direct experience autobiographical recall (ex. Student debt) personal experience > stronger attitudes > more likely behaviour Covert measure not directly under a person's control o implicit attitudes: Decision making tasks (ex. Defining issues test of moral judgement) Bogus pipeline (ex. procedure fools people into disclosing their attitude) o Non-verbal behaviour (Ex. Nodding, smiling) Implicit association test (IAT) Implicit relational assessment procedure (IRAP) Overt measures under a persons conscious control o explicit attitudes: (ex. self-repost surveys, questionnaires) Why is studying attitude important? o 1) shape interpretation of the world o 2) relatively enduring o 3) learned o 4) influence behaviour (prediction) complicated relation between attitude & behaviour o ex. Study on cheating is it wrong? 90% said YES, 50% still cheated when marking own. attitudes behaviour? (La Pierre) attitudes-behaviour link? o Socio-cultural context at the time Visited several establishments with Chinese couple Behaviour relative hospitality Wrote letter asking whether Chinese patrons would be served Attitude expressed prejudice/discrimination Correspondence principle of attitudes & behaviours: o must be measured at the same level of specificity or generality o Items measuring them must have similar elements for stronger correlation (ex. Time, context, target) (Davidons& jaccard) study on use of birth control: o attitude to BC: r=0.08 o attitude to BC pills: r=0.32 o attitude to using them for next 2 years: r=0.57 theory of planned behaviour (ajzens): behaviour intention is caused by.. o 1) attitudes toward behaviour (or class of behaviours) o 2) subjective norms o 3) perceived control acknowledges complexity of attitude-behaviour link: o focuses on specific attitude o sequence: attitude intention behaviour o acknowledges influence of social expectations & internal constraints prototype willingness model: prototypes (social images) of what people who engage in the behavior are like, influence peoples willingness to engage in the behavior in a given situation. Cognitive dissonance theory: (when behaviour affects attitude) Cognitive dissonance unpleasant state of arousal experienced when engaging in behaviour that conflicts with their attitude about it, or when someone experiences 2 conflicting attitudes o dissonance reduction change attitude or behaviour or justify behaviour. 4 ways we might change our attitudes: o 1) insufficicent justification an insufficient reward for behaviour causes us to change our attitude (ex. Must have liked it a bit) reward is high, you attribute your behaviour to external factors (got 20$), and dont change your attitude. Ex. (festinger) Boring task lied when offered 1$ over 20$ o 2) insufficient deterrence insufficient punishment for not doing something desirable can cause us to change our attitude ex. (freedman) 7-9 yr olds, forbid children from playing with a toy severe threat group, mild threat group 6 weeks later severe threat: 77% wanted the forbidden toy
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