Study Guides (248,568)
Canada (121,628)
Psychology (952)
PSYC 2310 (78)

midterm 2 notes

29 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 2310
Betty Onyura

midterm 2 11/1/2011 11:30:00 PM CHAPTER 6: Attitudes Defining attitudes Attitudes evaluative reaction toward something or someone, that is exhibited in ones beliefs, feelings, or intended behaviour. state of readiness for action Components: o 1) Affective component emotional reaction toward the object Emotions, no resason/logic, values, difficult to challenge o 2) Cognitive component thoughts, beliefs about the object. Perusal of relevant facts, measure of pros & cons o 3) Behavioural component intent to act Views of attitudes: Tri-component theory attitude is a single entity that has 3 components. o Affective, cognitive & behavioural components > highly correlated o Problems: (ex. Smoking, attitudes towards smoking) Competing entities view all 3 components are separate entities. o May or may not be inter-correlated o Ex. Bettys old smoking habit Attitude formation: 1) information people form attitudes from the information they receive from their environment o ex. What parents believe 2) Classical conditioning neutral stimulus repeatedly paired within another stimulus, until the neutral one elicits the same response. o mere exposure the greater the exposure we have to a given stimulus, the more we like it o subliminal persuasion persuasion that occurs when stimuli are presented at a very rapid and unconscious level o Method: UCS (time with gf) UCR (happiness) NS (smell perfume) + UCS (time with gf) UCR (happiness) CS (smell perfume on stranger) CS (happiness) NS CS CS CR Ex. Deodorant+sexual stimuli positive arousal In advertising: *Bases of attitudes targeted Effective? Cognitive? Why? 3) Operant conditioning rewards & punishment determine behaviour o Reinforcement increase probability of behaviour Positive reinforcement: Behaviour + good thing happens Ex. Press lever receive food Negative reinforcement: Behaviour + bad thing taken away Ex. Smoke anxiety reduction o Punishment decreases probability of behvaiour Positive punishment: Behaviour + bad thing happens Ex. Smoke + get sick Negative punishment: Behaviour + good thing gets taken away Ex. Smoke + lose friends 4) Observational learning (modeling) attitudes & behaviours are influences by watching others attitudes & behaviours o example bandura- bobo dolls o heavily used in the media > both positively and negatively Measuring attitudes Factors influencing attitude-behvaiour link: o Strength (ex. Passionate opinion on the death penalty, leads to volunteer) o Accessibility (ex. Constantly asked if they voted, leads to voting) o Specificity (ex. Staying home to study on a Friday night, better predictor) o social norms (ex. Surrounding belief influences drinkin & driving) Major determinant of attitude strength o 1) Ambivalence mixed feelings on important issues (multiple & often) more important topic > stronger attitude > more likely behaviour o 2) Accessibility degree which concept is active in our consciousness. Well informed > stronger attitude> more likely behaviour Increase of self awareness > increase attitude-behvaiour Decrease self awareness > weaken attitude-behaviour o 3) Direct experience autobiographical recall (ex. Student debt) personal experience > stronger attitudes > more likely behaviour Covert measure not directly under a person's control o implicit attitudes: Decision making tasks (ex. Defining issues test of moral judgement) Bogus pipeline (ex. procedure fools people into disclosing their attitude) o Non-verbal behaviour (Ex. Nodding, smiling) Implicit association test (IAT) Implicit relational assessment procedure (IRAP) Overt measures under a persons conscious control o explicit attitudes: (ex. self-repost surveys, questionnaires) Why is studying attitude important? o 1) shape interpretation of the world o 2) relatively enduring o 3) learned o 4) influence behaviour (prediction) complicated relation between attitude & behaviour o ex. Study on cheating is it wrong? 90% said YES, 50% still cheated when marking own. attitudes behaviour? (La Pierre) attitudes-behaviour link? o Socio-cultural context at the time Visited several establishments with Chinese couple Behaviour relative hospitality Wrote letter asking whether Chinese patrons would be served Attitude expressed prejudice/discrimination Correspondence principle of attitudes & behaviours: o must be measured at the same level of specificity or generality o Items measuring them must have similar elements for stronger correlation (ex. Time, context, target) (Davidons& jaccard) study on use of birth control: o attitude to BC: r=0.08 o attitude to BC pills: r=0.32 o attitude to using them for next 2 years: r=0.57 theory of planned behaviour (ajzens): behaviour intention is caused by.. o 1) attitudes toward behaviour (or class of behaviours) o 2) subjective norms o 3) perceived control acknowledges complexity of attitude-behaviour link: o focuses on specific attitude o sequence: attitude intention behaviour o acknowledges influence of social expectations & internal constraints prototype willingness model: prototypes (social images) of what people who engage in the behavior are like, influence peoples willingness to engage in the behavior in a given situation. Cognitive dissonance theory: (when behaviour affects attitude) Cognitive dissonance unpleasant state of arousal experienced when engaging in behaviour that conflicts with their attitude about it, or when someone experiences 2 conflicting attitudes o dissonance reduction change attitude or behaviour or justify behaviour. 4 ways we might change our attitudes: o 1) insufficicent justification an insufficient reward for behaviour causes us to change our attitude (ex. Must have liked it a bit) reward is high, you attribute your behaviour to external factors (got 20$), and dont change your attitude. Ex. (festinger) Boring task lied when offered 1$ over 20$ o 2) insufficient deterrence insufficient punishment for not doing something desirable can cause us to change our attitude ex. (freedman) 7-9 yr olds, forbid children from playing with a toy severe threat group, mild threat group 6 weeks later severe threat: 77% wanted the forbidden toy
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2310

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.